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Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating type of stroke and is a leading cause of disability and mortality. By contrast with advances in ischaemic stroke treatment, few evidence-based targeted treatments exist for ICH. Management of ICH is largely supportive, with strategies aimed at the limitation of further brain injury and the prevention of associated complications, which add further detrimental effects to an already lethal disease and jeopardise clinical outcomes. Complications of ICH include haematoma expansion, perihaematomal oedema with increased intracranial pressure, intraventricular extension of haemorrhage with hydrocephalus, seizures, venous thrombotic events, hyperglycaemia, increased blood pressure, fever, and infections. In view of the restricted number of therapeutic options for patients with ICH, improved surveillance is needed for the prevention of these complications, or, when this is not possible, early detection and optimum management, which could be effective in the reduction of adverse effects early in the course of stroke and in the improvement of prognosis. Further studies are needed to enhance the evidence-based recommendations for the management of this important clinical problem.

Original publication




Journal article


Lancet Neurol

Publication Date





101 - 118


Brain Edema, Cerebral Hemorrhage, Hematoma, Humans, Hyperglycemia, Hypertension, Seizures