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In vitro studies in purified plasma systems have suggested that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins such as chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins, and their remnants promote activation of factor VII through activated factor XII (XIIa) and the intrinsic coagulation pathway. We specifically examined the roles of factors XII, XI, and IX in activation of factor VII during alimentary lipemia in vivo in humans and addressed the issue of whether generation of activated factor VII (VIIa) is accompanied by increased thrombin production. For this purpose XIIa, factor IX activation peptide (IXP), VIIa, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) were determined in plasma samples taken before and 3, 6, and 9 hours after intake of a mixed meal type of oral fat load in 24 healthy men The VIIa response to fat intake was also determined in 7 patients with single coagulation-factor deficiency, of whom 2 were deficient in factor XII, 2 in factor XI, and 3 in factor IX. Postprandial activation of factors IX and VII occurred in the healthy individuals, whereas the plasma levels of XIIa did not change in response to the test meal. Of note, plasma concentrations of F1 + 2 were unaltered during alimentary lipemia, and TAT levels showed a small decrease (P < .05) in the 3-hour sample compared with the fasting level, indicating that thrombin generation is not stimulated in the postprandial state, despite the generation of activated factor IX (IXa) and VIIa. Factor VIIa increased in the postprandial period in the 2 factor XII-deficient patients who underwent the oral fat tolerance test but appeared to remain unchanged in the factor XI- and factor IX-deficient patients. Therefore, the current concept that activation of factor XII plays a pivotal role in initiating the sequence of events linking postprandial lipemia to activation of factor VII is contradicted by the present study. Whether activation of factor XI by triglyceride rich lipoproteins initiates these reactions needs to be demonstrated in future studies.


Journal article


Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol

Publication Date





1333 - 1339


Adult, Blood Coagulation, Blood Coagulation Factors, Dietary Fats, Factor VII, Factor VIIa, Humans, Lipoproteins, Male, Middle Aged, Postprandial Period, Triglycerides