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AIMS: To establish which components of energy balance mediate the clinically significant weight loss demonstrated with use of cotadutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/glucagon receptor dual agonist, in early-phase studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a phase 2a, single-centre, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Following a 16-day single-blind placebo run-in, participants were randomized 2:1 to double-blind 42-day subcutaneous treatment with cotadutide (100-300 μg daily) or placebo. The primary outcome was percentage weight change. Secondary outcomes included change in energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE). RESULTS: A total of 12 participants (63%) in the cotadutide group and seven (78%) in the placebo group completed the study. The mean (90% confidence interval [CI]) weight change was -4.0% (-4.9%, -3.1%) and -1.4% (-2.7%, -0.1%) for the cotadutide and placebo groups, respectively (p = 0.011). EI was lower with cotadutide versus placebo (-41.3% [-66.7, -15.9]; p = 0.011). Difference in EE (per kJ/kg lean body mass) for cotadutide versus placebo was 1.0% (90% CI -8.4, 10.4; p = 0.784), assessed by doubly labelled water, and -6.5% (90% CI -9.3, -3.7; p 

Original publication




Journal article


Diabetes Obes Metab

Publication Date



clinical trial, drug development, energy regulation, incretin physiology, weight control