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BACKGROUND: Data on sexual function in patients with adrenal insufficiency are scarce and largely controversial. OBJECTIVES: To investigate sexual dysfunction in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency and the effects of switching to once-daily dual-release hydrocortisone on sexual function in outcome assessors blinded, randomized, multicenter, active comparator clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-nine adrenal insufficiency patients on conventional, multiple daily doses of glucocorticoid replacement, enrolled in the Dual RElease hydrocortisone versus conventionAl glucocorticoid replaceMent in hypocortisolism (DREAM) trial, were randomly assigned to continue their therapy or to switch to an equivalent dose of dual-release hydrocortisone. Sixty-three patients (34 women) consented to sex steroid measurements and questionnaires completion for quality of life (Addison's disease-specific quality-of-life questionnaire) and sexual function evaluation (female sexual function index for women, International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function for men) at baseline and 24 weeks after randomization. RESULTS: At baseline, sexual dysfunction was observed in 41% of women and 59% of men with adrenal insufficiency. In both sexes, no associations were found between sexual function and hormone levels, whereas Addison's disease-specific quality-of-life questionnaire total and fatigue domain scores positively correlated with total female sexual function index and International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function scores. At 24 weeks, there was no significant difference either in sexual function or sex steroid levels between study groups. In the dual-release hydrocortisone group, the variation in the female sexual function index desire domain score was positively associated with the change in Addison's disease-specific quality-of-life questionnaire's symptom domain score (ρ = 0.478, p = 0.045). DISCUSSION: Sexual dysfunction is common in adrenal insufficiency patients and is likely explained by multiple factors. dual-release hydrocortisone treatment is not directly associated with sexual function improvement, but an indirect effect mediated by quality-of-life amelioration cannot be excluded.

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adrenal insufficiency, dual‐release hydrocortisone, erectile dysfunction, sexual function