Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

INTRODUCTION: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) declines with age and abnormalities in CBF are associated with age-related cerebrovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Women have higher CBF than men, although this sex-difference diminishes to some extent with age in healthy subjects. The physiological drivers of these age/sex differences are uncertain, but might be secondary to age and sex-differences in haemoglobin (Hb) level. Hb levels are inversely correlated with CBF, are lower in women, and decline with age in men, but the interrelations between these factors have not been explored systematically either in healthy subjects or across the full age-range in patients with vascular risk factors. We aimed to determine the age-specific interrelations between sex, Hb, and CBF velocity in a large cohort of patients with cerebrovascular disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In patients with a recent transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke (Oxford Vascular Study) and no ipsilateral or contralateral stenosis of the carotid or intracranial arteries, we related peak-systolic velocity (PSV) and other parameters on transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) of the middle cerebral artery to sex, age, Hb and vascular risk factors. RESULTS: Of 958 eligible subjects (mean age/SD = 68.04/14.26, 53.2% male), younger women (age 

Original publication




Journal article


Eur Stroke J

Publication Date



Cerebral blood flow, age, haemoglobin, sex, transcranial Doppler