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The CD1 family consists of five proteins that are related to the peptide-presenting MHC class I family. T cells can recognize the presentation of both foreign and self-derived lipids on four CD1 family members. The identities of the self-lipids capable of stimulating autoreactive T cell responses remain elusive or controversial. Here, we employed mass spectrometry to analyze the lipid content of highly purified CD1c and CD1d protein samples. We report the identification of 11 novel self-lipids presented by CD1c and nine by CD1d. Rigorous controls provide strong evidence that the identified lipids were specifically loaded into the lipid-binding site of the CD1 molecules. The diverse but distinct population of lipids identified from each CD1 family member implies each present a different subset of self-lipids, and the enrichment of particular motifs indicates that the lipids that are presented by CD1 family members could be predicted. Finally, our results imply the CD1 system surveys the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and/or secretory compartments, in addition to its well characterized surveillance of the endocytic and lysosomal compartments.

Original publication




Journal article


J Biol Chem

Publication Date





37692 - 37701


Antigen Presentation, Antigens, CD1, Antigens, CD1d, Binding Sites, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Glycoproteins, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Immunologic Surveillance, Mass Spectrometry, Membrane Lipids