C-Cell Hyperplasia and Cystic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Patient with Type 1B Pseudohypoparathyroidism and Hypercalcitoninaemia: Case Report and Review of the Literature.
Ferrari D., Pandozzi C., Filice A., Nardi C., Cozzolino A., Melcarne R., Giacomelli L., Biffoni M., Di Gioia C., Merenda E., Del Sindaco G., Pagnano A., Pofi R., Giannetta E.
Hypercalcitoninaemia has been described in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type 1A and 1B. Elevated calcitonin levels are thought to result from impaired Gsα receptor signaling, leading to multiple hormone resistance. Evidence on the risk of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) or C-cell hyperplasia in PHP patients with hypercalcitoninaemia is lacking. A 43-year-old Caucasian man was referred to our endocrinology clinic for chronic hypocalcemia associated with elevated serum parathormone levels and a single cystic thyroid nodule. The patient did not show skeletal deformities, and screening for concomitant hormone resistances was negative, except for the presence of elevated serum calcitonin levels. The workup led to a molecular diagnosis of sporadic PHP1B. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule was not diagnostic. The calcium stimulation test yielded an abnormal calcitonin response. Given the scarcity of data on the risk of thyroid malignancy in PHP and calcium stimulation test results, total thyroidectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed cystic papillary thyroid cancer in a background of diffuse C-cell hyperplasia. To our knowledge, we are the first to describe a rare form of thyroid cancer combined with C-cell hyperplasia in a patient with PHP and hypercalcitoninaemia. In the present case, a mere receptor resistance might not fully explain the elevated calcitonin levels, suggesting that hypercalcitoninaemia should be carefully evaluated in PHP patients, especially in the case of concomitant thyroid nodules. Further studies on larger cohorts are needed to elucidate this topic.