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Alström syndrome (AS) is an ultra-rare disorder characterised by early-onset multi-organ dysfunction, such as insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidaemia, and renal and cardiovascular disease. The objective is to explore whether AS is a disease of accelerated ageing and whether changes over time on echocardiography could reflect accelerated cardiac ageing. Cross-sectional measurement of Phenoage and retrospective analysis of serial echocardiography were performed between March 2012 and November 2022. The setting is a single national tertiary service jointly run by health service and patient charity. Forty-five adult patients aged over 16 years were included, 64% were male and 67% of White ethnicity. The median Phenoage was 48 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 35-72) in the 34 patients for whom this was calculable, which was significantly higher than the median chronological age of 29 years (IQR: 22-39, p<0.001). Phenoage was higher than chronological age in 85% (N=29) of patients, with a median difference of +18 years (IQR: +4, +34). On echocardiography, significant decreases were observed over time in left ventricular (LV) size at end-diastole (average of 0.046 cm per year, p<0.001) and end-systole (1.1% per year, p=0.025), with significant increase in posterior wall thickness at end-diastole (0.009 cm per year, p=0.008). LV systolic function measured by global longitudinal strain reduced (0.34 percentage points per year, p=0.020) and E/e'lat increased (2.5% per year, p=0.019). Most AS patients display a higher Phenoage compared to chronological age. Cardiac changes in AS patients were also reflective of accelerated ageing, with a reduction in LV size and increased wall thickening. AS may be a paradigm disease for premature ageing.

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Ageing, Cardiovascular, Echocardiography, Phenoage, Rare diseases