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BACKGROUND: Charge density mapping of atrial fibrillation (AF) reveals dynamic localized rotational activation (LRA), irregular activation (LIA) and focal firing (FF). Their spatial stability, conduction characteristics and the optimal duration of mapping required to reveal these phenomena and has not been explored. METHODS: Bi-atrial mapping of AF propagation was undertaken using AcQMap (Acutus Medical) and variability of activation patterns quantified up to a duration of 30 s. The frequency of each pattern was quantified at each unique point of the chamber over two separate 30-s recordings before ablation and R2 calculated to quantify spatial stability. Regions with the highest frequency were identified at increasing time durations and compared to the result over 30 s using Cohen's kappa. Properties of regions with the most stable patterns were assessed during sinus rhythm and extrastimulus pacing. RESULTS: In 21 patients, 62 paired LA and RA maps were obtained. LIA was highly spatially stable with R2 between maps of 0.83 (0.71-0.88) compared to 0.39 (0.24-0.57), and 0.64 (0.54-0.73) for LRA and FF, respectively. LIA was most temporally stable with a kappa of >0.8 reached by 12 s. LRA showed greatest variability with kappa >0.8 only after 22 s. Regions of LIA were of normal voltage amplitude (1.09 mv) but showed increased conduction heterogeneity during extrastimulus pacing (p = .0480). CONCLUSION: Irregular activation patterns characterized by changing wavefront direction are temporally and spatially stable in contrast with LRA that is transient with least spatial stability. Focal activation appears of intermediate stability. Regions of LIA show increased heterogeneity following extrastimulus pacing and may represent fixed anatomical substrate.

Original publication




Journal article


J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol

Publication Date





2393 - 2403


AcQMap, atrial fibrillation, charge density mapping, localized irregular activation, spatiotemporal stability, Atrial Fibrillation, Catheter Ablation, Heart Atria, Heart Conduction System, Heart Rate, Humans