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Anomalous pulmonary venous return (APVR) frequently occurs with other congenital heart defects (CHDs) or extra-cardiac anomalies. While some genetic causes have been identified, the optimal approach to genetic testing in individuals with APVR remains uncertain, and the etiology of most cases of APVR is unclear. Here, we analyzed molecular data from 49 individuals to determine the diagnostic yield of clinical exome sequencing (ES) for non-isolated APVR. A definitive or probable diagnosis was made for 8 of those individuals yielding a diagnostic efficacy rate of 16.3%. We then analyzed molecular data from 62 individuals with APVR accrued from three databases to identify novel APVR genes. Based on data from this analysis, published case reports, mouse models, and/or similarity to known APVR genes as revealed by a machine learning algorithm, we identified 3 genes-EFTUD2, NAA15, and NKX2-1-for which there is sufficient evidence to support phenotypic expansion to include APVR. We also provide evidence that 3 recurrent copy number variants contribute to the development of APVR: proximal 1q21.1 microdeletions involving RBM8A and PDZK1, recurrent BP1-BP2 15q11.2 deletions, and central 22q11.2 deletions involving CRKL. Our results suggest that ES and chromosomal microarray analysis (or genome sequencing) should be considered for individuals with non-isolated APVR for whom a genetic etiology has not been identified, and that genetic testing to identify an independent genetic etiology of APVR is not warranted in individuals with EFTUD2-, NAA15-, and NKX2-1-related disorders.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur J Hum Genet

Publication Date