Lifestyle interventions to change trajectories of obesity-related cardiovascular risk from childhood onset to manifestation in adulthood: a joint scientific statement of the task force for childhood health of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology and the European Childhood Obesity Group.
Hanssen H., Moholdt T., Bahls M., Biffi A., Siegrist M., Lewandowski AJ., Biondi-Zoccai G., Cavarretta E., Kokkvoll A., Løchen M-L., Maestrini V., Pinto RS., Palermi S., Thivel D., Wojcik M., Hansen D., Van Craenenbroeck EM., Weghuber D., Kraenkel N., Tiberi M.
There is an immediate need to optimize cardiovascular (CV) risk management and primary prevention of childhood obesity to timely and more effectively combat the health hazard and socioeconomic burden of CV disease from childhood development to adulthood manifestation. Optimizing screening programs and risk management strategies for obesity-related CV risk in childhood has high potential to change disease trajectories into adulthood. Building on a holistic view on the aetiology of childhood obesity, this document reviews current concepts in primary prevention and risk management strategies by lifestyle interventions. As an additional objective, this scientific statement addresses the high potential for reversibility of CV risk in childhood and comments on the use of modern surrogate markers beyond monitoring weight and body composition. This scientific statement also highlights the clinical importance of quantifying CV risk trajectories and discusses the remaining research gaps and challenges to better promote childhood health in a population-based approach. Finally, this document provides an overview on the lessons to be learned from the presented evidence and identifies key barriers to be targeted by researchers, clinicians, and policymakers to put into practice more effective primary prevention strategies for childhood obesity early in life to combat the burden of CV disease later in life.