Experimental Models of Traumatic Injuries: Do They Capture the Coagulopathy and Underlying Endotheliopathy Induced by Human Trauma?
Barrett L., Curry N., Abu-Hanna J.
Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with traumatic injury. It describes the spectrum of coagulation abnormalities that occur because of the trauma itself and the body's response to the trauma. These coagulation abnormalities range from hypocoagulability and hyperfibrinolysis, resulting in potentially fatal bleeding, in the early stages of trauma to hypercoagulability, leading to widespread clot formation, in the later stages. Pathological changes in the vascular endothelium and its regulation of haemostasis, a phenomenon known as the endotheliopathy of trauma (EoT), are thought to underlie TIC. Our understanding of EoT and its contribution to TIC remains in its infancy largely due to the scarcity of experimental research. This review discusses the mechanisms employed by the vascular endothelium to regulate haemostasis and their dysregulation following traumatic injury before providing an overview of the available experimental in vitro and in vivo models of trauma and their applicability for the study of the EoT and its contribution to TIC.