An international Delphi consensus statement on metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease and risk of chronic kidney disease.
Sun D-Q., Targher G., Byrne CD., Wheeler DC., Wong VW-S., Fan J-G., Tilg H., Yuan W-J., Wanner C., Gao X., Long MT., Kanbay M., Nguyen MH., Navaneethan SD., Yilmaz Y., Huang Y., Gani RA., Marzuillo P., Boursier J., Zhang H., Jung C-Y., Chai J., Valenti L., Papatheodoridis G., Musso G., Wong Y-J., El-Kassas M., Méndez-Sánchez N., Sookoian S., Pavlides M., Duseja A., Holleboom AG., Shi J., Chan W-K., Fouad Y., Yang J., Treeprasertsuk S., Cortez-Pinto H., Hamaguchi M., Romero-Gomez M., Al Mahtab M., Ocama P., Nakajima A., Dai C., Eslam M., Wei L., George J., Zheng M-H.
BACKGROUND: With the rising global prevalence of fatty liver disease related to metabolic dysfunction, the association of this common liver condition with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become increasingly evident. In 2020, the more inclusive term metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed to replace the term non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The observed association between MAFLD and CKD and our understanding that CKD can be a consequence of underlying metabolic dysfunction support the notion that individuals with MAFLD are at higher risk of having and developing CKD compared with those without MAFLD. However, to date, there is no appropriate guidance on CKD in individuals with MAFLD. Furthermore, there has been little attention paid to the link between MAFLD and CKD in the Nephrology community. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a Delphi-based approach, a multidisciplinary panel of 50 international experts from 26 countries reached a consensus on some of the open research questions regarding the link between MAFLD and CKD. CONCLUSIONS: This Delphi-based consensus statement provided guidance on the epidemiology, mechanisms, management and treatment of MAFLD and CKD, as well as the relationship between the severity of MAFLD and risk of CKD, which establish a framework for the early prevention and management of these two common and interconnected diseases.