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SNARE-proteins (soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor) are important for Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. We have used capacitance measurements and confocal imaging to dissect the role of synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and syntaxin 1 in rapid exocytosis in insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells. Following immunoneutralization of syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25, exocytosis was strongly reduced and associated with a marked reduction in the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP) by 65% and 86% in the presence of the anti-SNAP-25 and anti-syntaxin 1 antibodies respectively. The size of the immediately releasable pool (IRP), a subset of RRP in close association with the voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-channels, was reduced to an equal extent. The reduction in IRP correlated with slowed release kinetics and the time constant (tau) increased from a control value of 16 to 36 ms and 51 ms after inclusion of anti-SNAP-25 and anti-syntaxin 1 antibodies respectively in the pipette solution. We further show that SNAP-25 and syntaxin 1 aggregate in clusters along the plasma membrane. The size of these clusters was estimated to be approximately 300 nm and every beta-cell contained approximately 400 SNAP-25/syntaxin 1 clusters. Whereas the inhibitory action of the anti-syntaxin 1 antibody on exocytosis could be attributed almost entirely to suppression of the voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-current (-40%), the effect of the anti-SNAP-25 antibody was not mediated by decreased Ca(2+)-entry and is more likely due to a direct interference with the exocytotic machinery. Our data are consistent with the concept that both syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 are required for rapid exocytosis in beta-cells.

Original publication




Journal article


J Mol Endocrinol

Publication Date





503 - 515


Animals, Antibodies, Calcium, Calcium Channels, Cells, Cultured, Exocytosis, Insulin, Insulin-Secreting Cells, Mice, Patch-Clamp Techniques, Rats, Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25, Syntaxin 1