Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

PURPOSE: To test whether the k-space acquisition strategy used by fast-spin-echo (FSE) is a major source of blurring in carotid wall and plaque imaging, and investigate an alternative acquisition approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of echo train length (ETL) and T(2) on the amount of blurring was studied in FSE simulations of vessel images. Edge sharpness was measured in black-blood T(1) W and proton density-weighted (PDW) carotid images acquired from 5 normal volunteers and 19 asymptomatic patients using both FSE and multiple-spin-echo (Multi-SE) sequences at 3 Tesla (T). Plaque images were classified and divided in group α (tissues' average T(2) ∼ 40-70 ms) and group β (plaque components with shorter T(2) ). RESULTS: Simulations predicted 26.9% reduction of vessel edge sharpness from Multi-SE to FSE images (ETL = 9, T(2) = 60 ms). This agreed with in vivo measurements in normal volunteers (27.4%) and in patient group α (26.2%), while in group β the loss was higher (31.6%). CONCLUSION: FSE significantly reduced vessel edge sharpness along the phase-encoding direction in T(1) W and PDW images. Blurring was stronger in the presence of plaque components with short T(2) times. This study shows a limitation of FSE and the potential of Multi-SE to improve the quality of carotid imaging.

Original publication




Journal article


J Magn Reson Imaging

Publication Date





1136 - 1143


Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Algorithms, Atherosclerosis, Carotid Arteries, Computer Simulation, Female, Fourier Analysis, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Middle Aged, Models, Statistical, Protons