Granulocyte transfusion during cord blood transplant for relapsed, refractory AML is associated with massive CD8+ T-cell expansion, significant cytokine release syndrome and induction of disease remission.
Borrill R., Poulton K., Kusyk L., Routledge A., Bonney D., Hanasoge-Nataraj R., Powys M., Mustafa O., Campbell H., Senthil S., Dillon R., Jovanovic J., Morton S., James B., Rao K., Stanworth S., Konkel J., Wynn R.
In high-risk myeloid malignancy, relapse is reduced using cord blood transplant (CBT) but remains the principal cause of treatment failure. We previously described T-cell expansion in CBT recipients receiving granulocyte transfusions. We now report the safety and tolerability of such transfusions, T-cell expansion data, immunophenotype, cytokine profiles and clinical response in children with post-transplant relapsed acute leukaemia who received T-replete, HLA-mismatched CBT and pooled granulocytes within a phase I/II trial (ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT05425043). All patients received the transfusion schedule without significant clinical toxicity. Nine of ten patients treated had detectable measurable residual disease (MRD) pre-transplant. Nine patients achieved haematological remission, and eight became MRD negative. There were five deaths: transplant complications (n = 2), disease (n = 3), including two late relapses. Five patients are alive and in remission with 12.7 months median follow up. Significant T-cell expansion occurred in nine patients with a greater median lymphocyte count than a historical cohort between days 7-13 (median 1.73 × 109 /L vs. 0.1 × 109 /L; p