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AIMS: RECOVER AF evaluated the performance of whole-chamber non-contact charge-density mapping to guide the ablation of non-pulmonary vein (PV) targets in persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) patients following either a first or second failed procedure. METHODS AND RESULTS: RECOVER AF was a prospective, non-randomized trial that enrolled patients scheduled for a first or second ablation retreatment for recurrent AF. The PVs were assessed and re-isolated if necessary. The AF maps were used to guide the ablation of non-PV targets through elimination of pathologic conduction patterns (PCPs). Primary endpoint was freedom from AF on or off antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) at 12 months. Patients undergoing retreatment with the AcQMap System (n = 103) were 76% AF-free at 12 months [67% after single procedure (SP)] on or off AADs (80% free from AF on AADs). Patients who had only received a pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) prior to study treatment of non-PV targets with the AcQMap System were 91% AF-free at 12 months (83% SP). No major adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: Non-contact mapping can be used to target and guide the ablation of PCPs beyond the PVs in persistent AF patients returning for a first or second retreatment with 76% freedom from AF at 12 months. The AF freedom was particularly high, 91% (43/47), for patients enrolled having only a prior de novo PVI, and freedom from all atrial arrhythmias for this cohort was 74% (35/47). These early results are encouraging and suggest that guiding individualized targeted ablation of PCPs may therefore be advantageous to target at the earliest opportunity in patients with persistent AF.

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Ablation retreatment, Atrial fibrillation, Charge density, Isolated veins, Mapping, Non-pulmonary vein targets, Pathologic conduction patterns, Reconnected veins, Humans, Atrial Fibrillation, Prospective Studies, Pulmonary Veins, Retreatment, Anti-Arrhythmia Agents, Catheter Ablation, Treatment Outcome, Recurrence