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BACKGROUND: Managing critical bleeding with massive transfusion (MT) requires a multidisciplinary team, often physically separated, to perform several simultaneous tasks at short notice. This places a significant cognitive load on team members, who must maintain situational awareness in rapidly changing scenarios. Similar resuscitation scenarios have benefited from the use of clinical decision support (CDS) tools. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A multicenter, multidisciplinary, user-centered design (UCD) study was conducted to design a computerized CDS for MT. This study included analysis of the problem context with a cognitive walkthrough, development of a user requirement statement, and co-design with users of prototypes for testing. The final prototype was evaluated using qualitative assessment and the System Usability Scale (SUS). RESULTS: Eighteen participants were recruited across four institutions. The first UCD cycle resulted in the development of four prototype interfaces that addressed the user requirements and context of implementation. Of these, the preferred interface was further developed in the second UCD cycle to create a high-fidelity web-based CDS for MT. This prototype was evaluated by 15 participants using a simulated bleeding scenario and demonstrated an average SUS of 69.3 (above average, SD 16) and a clear interface with easy-to-follow blood product tracking. DISCUSSION: We used a UCD process to explore a highly complex clinical scenario and develop a prototype CDS for MT that incorporates distributive situational awareness, supports multiple user roles, and allows simulated MT training. Evaluation of the impact of this prototype on the efficacy and efficiency of managing MT is currently underway.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





993 - 1004


blood management, transfusion practices (adult), Humans, Decision Support Systems, Clinical, User-Centered Design, Blood Transfusion, Awareness, Computer Simulation