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BACKGROUND: In-hospital acute resuscitation in trauma has evolved toward early and balanced transfusion resuscitation with red blood cells (RBC) and plasma being transfused in equal ratios. Being able to deliver this ratio in prehospital environments is a challenge. A combined component, like leukocyte-depleted red cell and plasma (RCP), could facilitate early prehospital resuscitation with RBC and plasma, while at the same time improving logistics for the team. However, there is limited evidence on the clinical benefits of RCP. OBJECTIVE: To compare prehospital transfusion of combined RCP versus RBC alone or RBC and plasma separately (RBC + P) on mortality in trauma bleeding patients. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on patients who received prehospital transfusion (RBC + thawed plasma/Lyoplas or RCP) for traumatic hemorrhage from six prehospital services in England (2018-2020). Retrospective data on patients who transfused RBC from 2015 to 2018 were included for comparison. The association between transfusion arms and 24-h and 30-day mortality, adjusting for age, injury mechanism, age, prehospital heart rate and blood pressure, was evaluated using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Out of 970 recruited patients, 909 fulfilled the study criteria (RBC + P = 391, RCP = 295, RBC = 223). RBC + P patients were older (mean age 42 vs 35 years for RCP and RBC), and 80% had a blunt injury (RCP = 52%, RBC = 56%). RCP and RBC + P were associated with lower odds of death at 24-h, compared to RBC alone (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.69 [95%CI: 0.52; 0.92] and 0.60 [95%CI: 0.32; 1.13], respectively). The lower odds of death for RBC + P and RCP vs RBC were driven by penetrating injury (aOR 0.22 [95%CI: 0.10; 0.53] and 0.39 [95%CI: 0.20; 0.76], respectively). There was no association between RCP or RBC + P with 30-day survival vs RBC. CONCLUSION: Prehospital plasma transfusion for penetrating injury was associated with lower odds of death at 24-h compared to RBC alone. Large trials are needed to confirm these findings.

Original publication




Journal article


Crit Care

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Combined red cell and plasma, Mortality, Prehospital transfusion, Trauma, Humans, Adult, Erythrocyte Transfusion, Blood Component Transfusion, Retrospective Studies, Plasma, Hemorrhage, Resuscitation, Erythrocytes, England, Emergency Medical Services, Wounds and Injuries