Routine cerebral embolic protection in transcatheter aortic valve implantation: rationale and design of the randomised British Heart Foundation PROTECT-TAVI trial.
Kharbanda RK., Perkins AD., Kennedy J., Banning AP., Baumbach A., Blackman DJ., Dodd M., Evans R., Hildick-Smith D., Jamal Z., Ludman P., Palmer S., Stables R., Clayton T.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established treatment for aortic stenosis. Cerebral embolic protection (CEP) devices may impact periprocedural stroke by capturing debris destined for the brain. However, there is a lack of high-quality randomised trial evidence supporting the use of CEP during TAVI. The British Heart Foundation (BHF) PROTECT-TAVI trial will address whether the routine use of CEP reduces the incidence of stroke in patients undergoing TAVI. BHF PROTECT-TAVI is a prospective, open-label, outcome-adjudicated, multicentre randomised controlled trial. The trial is open to all adult patients scheduled for TAVI at participating specialist cardiac centres across the United Kingdom who are able to receive the CEP device. The trial will recruit 7,730 participants. Participants will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to undergo TAVI with CEP or TAVI without CEP (standard of care). The primary outcome is the incidence of stroke at 72 hours post-TAVI. Key secondary outcomes include the incidence of stroke and all-cause mortality up to 12 months post-TAVI, disability and cognitive outcomes, stroke severity, access site complications and a health economics analysis. The sample size of 7,730 participants has 80% power to detect a 33% relative risk reduction from a 3% incidence of the primary outcome in the controls. Trial recruitment commenced in October 2020. As of October 2022, 3,068 patients have been enrolled. BHF PROTECT-TAVI is designed to provide definitive evidence on the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of using routine CEP with the SENTINEL device to reduce stroke in TAVI.