Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Magnitude-based PDFF (Proton Density Fat Fraction) and R2∗ mapping with resolved water-fat ambiguity is extended to calculate field inhomogeneity (field map) using the phase images. The estimation is formulated in matrix form, resolving the field map in a least-squares sense. PDFF and R2∗ from magnitude fitting may be updated using the estimated field maps. The limits of quantification of our voxel-independent implementation were assessed. Bland-Altman was used to compare PDFF and field maps from our method against a reference complex-based method on 152 UK Biobank subjects (1.5 T Siemens). A separate acquisition (3 T Siemens) presenting field inhomogeneities was also used. The proposed field mapping was accurate beyond double the complex-based limit range. High agreement was obtained between the proposed method and the reference in UK. Robust field mapping was observed at 3 T, for inhomogeneities over 400 Hz including rapid variation across edges. Field mapping following unambiguous magnitude-based water-fat separation was demonstrated in-vivo and showed potential at 3 T.

Original publication




Journal article


Magn Reson Imaging

Publication Date





102 - 111


B0 field, Fat-water swap, MRI-PDFF, Proton density fat fraction, Humans, Water, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Protons, Liver, Reproducibility of Results