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BACKGROUND: Adults with triple-class refractory (TCR) multiple myeloma (MM) have limited treatment options and poor prognosis, but the burden of TCR MM has not been well characterized. This study evaluated treatment patterns, overall survival (OS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and healthcare resource use (HCRU) among patients with TCR MM in US clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with TCR MM in the Connect MM Registry (NCT01081028; a large, US, multicenter, prospective observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed MM) were included. Patient characteristics, treatment patterns, HRQoL, and HCRU were analyzed using descriptive statistics. OS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier methodology for the overall cohort and for patients with/without ≥1 post-TCR line of therapy (LOT). RESULTS: A total of 232 patients with TCR MM were included; 155 (67%) had ≥1 post-TCR LOT (post-TCR-Treated subgroup; median 9.9 months of follow-up). Most common post-TCR treatments were carfilzomib (47%), pomalidomide (40%), and daratumumab (26%); median treatment duration was 3.3 months. Median OS was 9.9 months in the overall population, 10.8 months in post-TCR-Treated patients, and 2.6 months for those with no new post-TCR LOT. HRQoL deteriorated and pain increased over 1 year of follow-up, with clinically meaningfully changes in EQ-5D (mean, -0.06 points) and FACT-G (mean, -9.9 points). 124 (53%) patients had ≥1 all-cause hospitalization and 58 (25%) had ≥1 MM-related hospitalization; median annualized length of stay was 35.3 and 42.9 days, respectively. CONCLUSION: The burden of TCR MM is substantial, emphasizing the need for more effective treatment options in the TCR setting.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk

Publication Date



Hematological malignancy, Hospitalizations, Outcomes research, Prospective observational cohort study, Real-world study