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INTRODUCTION: Neurocognitive problems associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can interact with impairment resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI). RESEARCH QUESTION: We aimed to identify neurocognitive problems associated with probable PTSD following TBI in a civilian sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is part of the CENTER-TBI project (Collaborative European Neurotrauma Effectiveness Research) that aims to better characterize TBI. For this cross-sectional study, we included patients of all severities aged over 15, and a Glasgow Outcome Score Extended (GOSE) above 3. Participants were assessed at six months post-injury on the PTSD Checklist-5 (PCL-5), the Trail Making Test (TMT), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Primary analysis was a complete case analysis. Regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between the PCL-5 and cognition. RESULTS: Of the 1134 participants included in the complete case analysis, 13.5% screened positive for PTSD. Probable PTSD was significantly associated with higher TMT-(B-A) (OR ​= ​1.35, 95% CI: 1.14-1.60, p ​

Original publication




Journal article


Brain Spine

Publication Date





Cognition, Head injury, Neuropsychology, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Stress