Neurocognitive correlates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder following traumatic brain injury.
Van Praag DLG., Wouters K., Van Den Eede F., Wilson L., Maas AIR., CENTER-TBI investigators and participants None.
INTRODUCTION: Neurocognitive problems associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can interact with impairment resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI). RESEARCH QUESTION: We aimed to identify neurocognitive problems associated with probable PTSD following TBI in a civilian sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is part of the CENTER-TBI project (Collaborative European Neurotrauma Effectiveness Research) that aims to better characterize TBI. For this cross-sectional study, we included patients of all severities aged over 15, and a Glasgow Outcome Score Extended (GOSE) above 3. Participants were assessed at six months post-injury on the PTSD Checklist-5 (PCL-5), the Trail Making Test (TMT), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Primary analysis was a complete case analysis. Regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between the PCL-5 and cognition. RESULTS: Of the 1134 participants included in the complete case analysis, 13.5% screened positive for PTSD. Probable PTSD was significantly associated with higher TMT-(B-A) (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.14-1.60, p