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A 3D density-weighted concentric ring trajectory (CRT) MRSI sequence is implemented for cardiac 31 P-MRS at 7T. The point-by-point k-space sampling of traditional phase-encoded CSI sequences severely restricts the minimum scan time at higher spatial resolutions. Our proposed CRT sequence implements a stack of concentric rings trajectory, with a variable number of rings and planes spaced to optimise the density of k-space weighting. This creates flexibility in acquisition time, allowing acquisitions substantially faster than traditional phase-encoded CSI sequences, while retaining high SNR. We first characterise the signal-to-noise ratio and point spread function of the CRT sequence in phantoms. We then evaluate it at five different acquisition times and spatial resolutions in the hearts of five healthy participants at 7T. These different sequence durations are compared with existing published 3D acquisition-weighted CSI sequences with matched acquisition times and spatial resolutions. To minimise the effect of noise on the short acquisitions, low-rank denoising of the spatio-temporal data was also performed after acquisition. The proposed sequence measures 3D localised PCr/ATP ratios of the human myocardium in 2.5 minutes, 2.6 times faster than the minimum scan time for the acquisition-weighted phase-encoded CSI. Alternatively, in the same scan time a 1.7-times smaller nominal voxel volume can be achieved. Low-rank denoising reduced the variance of measured PCr/ATP ratios by 11% across all protocols. The faster acquisitions permitted by 7T CRT 31 P-MRSI could make cardiac stress protocols or creatine kinase rate measurements (which involve repeated scans) more tolerable for patients without sacrificing spatial resolution.

Original publication




Journal article


NMR Biomed

Publication Date



31P, CRT, MRSI, Spectroscopy, heart, phosphorus