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Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) describes the concurrent failure of cardiac and renal function, each influencing the other. Malnutrition and cachexia frequently develop in patients with heart failure or kidney failure. However, no information is currently available on the prevalence of malnutrition in CRS patients. We studied CRS patients admitted to an internal medicine ward during a 5-month period and evaluated their clinical characteristics and nutritional status. Malnutrition risk was assessed by using the validated screening tool NRS-2002 whilst body composition was assessed by bioimpedance analysis and muscle function was measured by handgrip (HG) strength. Cardiac mass was also recorded. Length of stay, hospital readmission and 6-month mortality were registered. During the study period, 22 CRS patients were studied. Twenty patients were diagnosed with either CRS type 1 or CRS type 5. In CRS patients, fat-free mass showed a trend toward representing a protective factor for 6-month mortality (OR=0.904; p=0.06). Also, fat-free mass correlated with HG strength and cardiac ejection fraction. Malnutrition risk was diagnosed in 45% of the patients, whereas 8 patients met the definition of cachexia. Even without statistical significance, CRS patients with malnutrition had lower BMI (Body Mass Index) (p=0.038) and fat-free mass (p= n.s.). However, CRS malnutrition was associated to higher 6-month mortality (p= 0.05), and appears to negatively influence the outcome in CRS (OR= 9; p= 0.06). Our results show that malnutrition is prevalent in CRS patients and influences the clinical outcome. The assessment of nutritional status, and particularly body composition, should be implemented in daily practice of patients with CRS.


Journal article


Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents

Publication Date





163 - 166


Department of Clinical Medicine, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.


Humans, Malnutrition, Stroke Volume, Hand Strength, Risk Factors, Nutritional Status, Electric Impedance, Female, Male, Cardio-Renal Syndrome