BMI, nephroangiosclerosis and glomerulonephritis: Is there any meeting point?
Gigante A., Giannakakis K., Di Mario F., Barbano B., Rosato E., Pofi R., Di Paolo M., Rocca AR., Cianci R.
AimOverweight has been related to renal arteriolosclerosis and is able to modify intrarenal haemodynamics. Increasing evidence suggests an association between weight in excess and primary glomerulonephritis (GN). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status and intrarenal arterial stiffness in primary GN associated to arteriolosclerosis. We have considered the glomerular diameter (GD) as morphological parameter in overweight and obese patients.MethodsClinical, laboratory, anthropometric data and renal Doppler ultrasound were performed immediately before kidney biopsy.ResultsPrimary GN was diagnosed in 92 patients. Mild arteriolosclerosis was found in 19.6% of patients, moderate in the 20.6%, severe in the 10.9% while nephroangiosclerosis was diagnosed in 8.7% of patients. A positive correlation was found between body mass index (BMI) and renal resistive index (RRI) (P < 0.01, r = 0.34). RRI were significantly higher in patients with severe arteriolosclerosis at kidney biopsy (P < 0.05). Furthermore, higher BMI (P < 0.01) was found in patients with renal arteriolosclerosis than patients without renal arteriolosclerosis (26.1 ± 4.4 kg/m2 vs. 24.4 ± 4.5 kg/m2 ). Finally, in overweight and obesity patients we found a positive correlation between maximal GD and BMI (P < 0.01) and maximal GD and RRI (P < 0.01).ConclusionIn overweight and obese patients affected by primary GN, it might be found not only glomerular but also renal vascular lesions. Finally, we believe that nephroangiosclerosis, in combination with weight in excess, is able to modify intrarenal haemodynamic parameters. Moreover, in response to these changes, the renal tissue morphologically promotes a GD increase regardless of the underlying GN.