Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The gut-brain axis is involved in metabolic homeostasis through optimization of nutrient absorption and appetite regulation, and encompasses a two-way communication between the gastrointestinal tract and neural circuits in the brain. An important feature of this axis is the secretion of gut-derived peptide hormones which signal energy status to the brain, provoking adaptive behaviors such as food intake or satiation. However, the major integrator of gut signals, the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, is protected by blood-brain barrier, an obstacle to free diffusion of circulating molecules. The aim of this chapter is to therefore review and summarize recent findings regarding the mechanisms underlying entry of gastrointestinal tract hormones into the central nervous system, and identify how these become dysregulated in socioeconomically-costly metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Horm Res

Publication Date





29 - 49


Animals Blood-Brain Barrier/*metabolism Brain/*metabolism Eating/physiology Gastrointestinal Hormones/*metabolism Gastrointestinal Tract/*metabolism Homeostasis/physiology Humans