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Hormones are dynamically collected by fenestrated capillaries to generate pulses, which are then decoded by target tissues to mount a biological response. To generate hormone pulses, endocrine systems have evolved mechanisms to tightly regulate blood perfusion and oxygenation, coordinate endocrine cell responses to secretory stimuli, and regulate hormone uptake from the perivascular space into the bloodstream. Based on recent findings, we review here the mechanisms that exist in endocrine systems to regulate blood flow, and facilitate coordinated cell activity and output under both normal physiological and pathological conditions in the pituitary gland and pancreas.

Original publication




Journal article


J Mol Endocrinol

Publication Date





R59 - R66


Animals Endocrine Cells/*metabolism Endocrine System/*blood supply/cytology/*metabolism Humans Pancreas/blood supply/cytology/metabolism Pituitary Gland/blood supply/cytology/metabolism