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Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable. Although early diagnosis improves outcomes, it has been unclear which populations to target for screening with serum electrophoresis, serum free light chains and urine electrophoresis. Here, we assessed the value of MM screening in a Fracture Liaison Service, finding that 1 per 195 fragility fractures has undiagnosed MM, which can be expedited to Haematology Services. PURPOSE: A key role of the Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) is screening for secondary causes of osteoporosis. In 2019, the Royal Osteoporosis Society recommended that all patients attending FLS who are recommended anti-osteoporosis therapy have universal screening for myeloma based on serum electrophoresis, serum free light chains and urine electrophoresis. Here, we examined the impact of universal myeloma screening within an FLS. METHODS: We sampled all patients seen by the Oxfordshire FLS between January and April 2018. The completion rates and outcomes of screening were checked using the hospital and FLS databases. RESULTS: Of 950 patients identified by the FLS, 628 were eligible for MM screening; 473 (75%) of these were female, and the average age was 78.4 years. Overall, 584 had some form of myeloma screening, of which 577 (92%) had serum electrophoresis, 525 (84%) had serum free light chains and 407 (65%) had urine electrophoresis measured. A total of 327 (59%) patients had complete screening. Three patients (0.5%) had newly diagnosed myeloma and were urgently referred to Haematology Services. Furthermore, 46 (8%) patients had a detectable serum paraprotein with a likely diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) and referred for community annual surveillance according to local guidelines. CONCLUSION: Addition of universal myeloma screening to laboratory testing identified myeloma in 1 per 195 patients, and its precursor state MGUS in 1 per 13 patients, which may have otherwise been missed. Further analysis with long-term follow-up is needed to clearly define the value of diagnosing MGUS within the FLS setting and establish the benefits vs. costs and methods to improve screening completion rates.

Original publication




Journal article


Osteoporos Int

Publication Date



FLS, MGUS, Myeloma, Osteoporosis, Screening