Predicting mortality from intracranial hemorrhage in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients
Ren X., Huang Q., Qu Q., Cai X., Fu H-X., Mo X., Wang Y., Zheng Y., Jiang E., Ye Y., Luo Y., Chen S., Yang T., Zhang Y., Han W., Tang F., Mo W., Wang S., Li F., Liu D., Zhang X., Zhang Y., Feng S., Gao F., Yuan H., Wang D., Wan D., Chen H., Chen Y., Wang J., Chen Y., Wang Y., Xu K., Lang T., Wang X., Meng BH., Li L., Wang Z., Fan Y., Chang Y-J., Xu L-P., Huang X., Zhang X-H.
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a rare but fatal central nervous system complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, factors that are predictive of early mortality in patients who develop ICH after undergoing allo-HSCT have not been systemically investigated. From January 2008 to June 2020, 70 allo-HSCT patients with ICH diagnosis formed the derivation cohort. Forty-one allo-HSCT patients with ICH diagnosis were collected from 12 other medical centers during the same period, and they comprised the external validation cohort. We used these 2 cohorts to develop and validate a grading scale that enables the prediction of 30-day mortality from ICH in all-HSCT patients. Four predictors, lactate dehydrogenase level, albumin level, white blood cell count and disease status, were retained in the multivariable logistic regression model, and a simplified grading scale, termed the LAWS score, was developed. The LAWS score was adequately calibrated (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p>0.05) in both cohorts. It had good discrimination power in both the derivation cohort (C-statistic of 0.859, 95% CI 0.776-0.945) and the external validation cohort (C-statistic of 0.795, 95% CI 0.645-0.945). The LAWS score is the first scoring system capable of predicting the 30-day mortality from ICH in allo-HSCT patients. It showed good performance in identifying allo-HSCT patients at increased risk of early mortality after ICH diagnosis. We anticipate that it would help risk-stratify allo-HSCT patients with ICH and facilitate future studies on developing individualized and novel interventions for patients within different LAWS risk groups.