Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The change in longitudinal relaxation rate (R1 ) produced by oxygen has been used as a means of inferring oxygenation levels in magnetic resonance imaging in numerous applications. The relationship between oxygen partial pressure (pO2 ) and R1 is linear and reproducible, and the slope represents the relaxivity of oxygen (r1Ox ) in that material. However, there is considerable variability in the values of r1Ox reported, and they have been shown to vary by field strength and temperature. Therefore, we have compiled 28 reported empirical values of the relaxivity of oxygen as a resource for researchers. Furthermore, we provide an empirical model for estimating the relaxivity of oxygen in water, saline, plasma, and vitreous fluids, accounting for magnetic field strength and temperature. The model agrees well (R2  = 0.93) with the data gathered from the literature for fields ranging from 0.011 to 8.45 T and temperatures of 21-40 °C. This provides a useful resource for researchers seeking to quantify pO2 in simple fluids in their studies, such as water and saline phantoms, or bodily fluids such as vitreous fluids, cerebrospinal fluids, and amniotic fluids.

Original publication




Journal article


NMR Biomed

Publication Date





R1, longitudinal relaxation, oxygen, relaxivity, vitreous, water, Magnetic Fields, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Oxygen