Overfeeding Saturated Fat Increases LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) Aggregation Susceptibility While Overfeeding Unsaturated Fat Decreases Proteoglycan-Binding of Lipoproteins.
Ruuth M., Lahelma M., Luukkonen PK., Lorey MB., Qadri S., Sädevirta S., Hyötyläinen T., Kovanen PT., Hodson L., Yki-Järvinen H., Öörni K.
OBJECTIVE: We recently showed that measurement of the susceptibility of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) to aggregation is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. We now wished to compare effects of overfeeding different dietary macronutrients on LDL aggregation, proteoglycan-binding of plasma lipoproteins, and on the concentration of oxidized LDL in plasma, 3 in vitro parameters consistent with increased atherogenicity. Approach and Results: The participants (36 subjects; age, 48±10 years; body mass index, 30.9±6.2 kg/m2) were randomized to consume an extra 1000 kcal/day of either unsaturated fat, saturated fat, or simple sugars (CARB) for 3 weeks. We measured plasma proatherogenic properties (susceptibility of LDL to aggregation, proteoglycan-binding, oxidized LDL) and concentrations and composition of plasma lipoproteins using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and in LDL using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, before and after the overfeeding diets. LDL aggregation increased in the saturated fat but not the other groups. This change was associated with increased sphingolipid and saturated triacylglycerols in LDL and in plasma and reduction of clusterin on LDL particles. Proteoglycan binding of plasma lipoproteins decreased in the unsaturated fat group relative to the baseline diet. Lipoprotein properties remained unchanged in the CARB group. CONCLUSIONS: The type of fat during 3 weeks of overfeeding is an important determinant of the characteristics and functional properties of plasma lipoproteins in humans. REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier NCT02133144.