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OBJECTIVES: to determine the overall cardiovascular risk for patients with combined cardiac and carotid artery disease undergoing synchronous coronary artery bypass (CABG) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA), staged CEA then CABG and reverse staged CABG then CEA. DESIGN: systematic review of 97 published studies following 8972 staged or synchronous operations. RESULTS: mortality was highest in patients undergoing synchronous CEA+CABG (4.6%, 95% CI 4.1-5.2). Reverse staged procedures (CABG-CEA) were associated with the highest risk of ipsilateral stroke (5.8%, 95% CI 0.0-14.3) and any stroke (6.3%, 95% CI 1.0-11.7). Peri-operative myocardial infarction (MI) was lowest following the reverse staged procedure (0.9%, 95% CI 0.5-1.4) and highest in patients undergoing staged CEA-CABG (6.5%, 95% CI 3.2-9.7). The risk of death+/-any stroke was highest in patients undergoing synchronous CEA+CABG (8.7%, 95% CI 7.7-9.8) and lowest following staged CEA-CABG (6.1%, 95% CI 2.9-9.3). The risk of death/stroke or MI was 11.5% (95% CI 10.1-12.9) following synchronous procedures versus 10.2% (95% CI 7.4-13.1) after staged CEA then CABG. CONCLUSIONS: 10-12% of patients undergoing staged or synchronous procedures suffered death or major cardiovascular morbidity (stroke, MI) within 30 days of surgery. Overall, there was no significant difference in outcomes for staged and synchronous procedures and no comparable data for patients with combined cardiac and carotid disease not undergoing staged or synchronous surgery.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg

Publication Date





380 - 389


Carotid Stenosis, Cerebrovascular Disorders, Coronary Artery Bypass, Coronary Disease, Endarterectomy, Carotid, Humans, Outcome Assessment (Health Care), Postoperative Complications