Left Ventricular Diastolic Function Studied with Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Systematic Review of Techniques and Relation to Established Measures of Diastolic Function
Bojer AS., Soerensen MH., Gaede P., Myerson S., Madsen PL.
Purpose: In recent years, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has been used to assess LV diastolic function. In this systematic review, studies were identified where CMR parameters had been evaluated in healthy and/or patient groups with proven diastolic dysfunction or known to develop heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. We aimed at describing the parameters most often used, thresholds where possible, and correlation to echocardiographic and invasive measurements. Methods and results: A systematic literature review was performed using the databases of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane. In total, 3808 articles were screened, and 102 studies were included. Four main CMR techniques were identified: tagging; time/volume curves; mitral inflow quantification with velocity-encoded phase-contrast sequences; and feature tracking. Techniques were described and estimates were presented in tables. From published studies, peak change of torsion shear angle versus volume changes in early diastole (−dφ′/dV′) (from tagging analysis), early peak filling rate indexed to LV end-diastolic volume <2.1 s−1 (from LV time-volume curve analysis), enlarged LA maximal volume >52 mL/m2, lowered LA total (<40%), and lowered LA passive emptying fractions (<16%) seem to be reliable measures of LV diastolic dysfunction. Feature tracking, especially of the atrium, shows promise but is still a novel technique. Conclusion: CMR techniques of LV untwisting and early filling and LA measures of poor emptying are promising for the diagnosis of LV filling impairment, but further research in long-term follow-up studies is needed to assess the ability for the parameters to predict patient related outcomes.