PIGG variant pathogenicity assessment reveals characteristic features within 19 families.
Tremblay-Laganière C., Maroofian R., Nguyen TTM., Karimiani EG., Kirmani S., Akbar F., Ibrahim S., Afroze B., Doosti M., Ashrafzadeh F., Babaei M., Efthymiou S., Christoforou M., Sultan T., Ladda RL., McLaughlin HM., Truty R., Mahida S., Cohen JS., Baranano K., Ismail FY., Patel MS., Lehman A., Edmondson AC., Nagy A., Walker MA., Mercimek-Andrews S., Maki Y., Sachdev R., Macintosh R., Palmer EE., Mancini GMS., Barakat TS., Steinfeld R., Rüsch CT., Stettner GM., Wagner M., Wortmann SB., Kini U., Brady AF., Stals KL., Ismayilova N., Ellard S., Bernardo D., Nugent K., McLean SD., Antonarakis SE., Houlden H., Kinoshita T., Campeau PM., Murakami Y.
PURPOSE: Phosphatidylinositol Glycan Anchor Biosynthesis, class G (PIGG) is an ethanolamine phosphate transferase catalyzing the modification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). GPI serves as an anchor on the cell membrane for surface proteins called GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Pathogenic variants in genes involved in the biosynthesis of GPI cause inherited GPI deficiency (IGD), which still needs to be further characterized. METHODS: We describe 22 individuals from 19 unrelated families with biallelic variants in PIGG. We analyzed GPI-AP surface levels on granulocytes and fibroblasts for three and two individuals, respectively. We demonstrated enzymatic activity defects for PIGG variants in vitro in a PIGG/PIGO double knockout system. RESULTS: Phenotypic analysis of reported individuals reveals shared PIGG deficiency-associated features. All tested GPI-APs were unchanged on granulocytes whereas CD73 level in fibroblasts was decreased. In addition to classic IGD symptoms such as hypotonia, intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD), and seizures, individuals with PIGG variants of null or severely decreased activity showed cerebellar atrophy, various neurological manifestations, and mitochondrial dysfunction, a feature increasingly recognized in IGDs. Individuals with mildly decreased activity showed autism spectrum disorder. CONCLUSION: This in vitro system is a useful method to validate the pathogenicity of variants in PIGG and to study PIGG physiological functions.