Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

AIMS: We investigated associations of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid plaque with ankle-brachial index (ABI) and toe-brachial index (TBI) in Chinese adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 6688 participants from a well-defined Chinese community. CIMT and carotid plaque was measured with a high-resolution B-mode tomographic ultrasound system. Low ABI was defined as ABI ≤ 0.90. Low TBI was defined as TBI ≤ 0.60. Carotid plaques were classified as normal, homogeneous or heterogeneous according to morphology. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, sex and body mass index, each 0.10 mm CIMT increase was associated with 0.0123 unit decrease in TBI (P = 0.004) and 0.0063 in ABI (P = 0.04) in patients with diabetes. After further adjustments for waist circumference, smoking and drinking habits, hypertension, lipids and hemoglobin A1c, the associations between CIMT and TBI remained significant; while those with ABI were disappeared. Meanwhile, each 0.10 mm increment of CIMT or rank of carotid plaque morphology was associated with a risk of presence of low TBI (CIMT: odds ratio: 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.40; carotid plaque morphology: 1.45, 1.01-2.08) in patients with diabetes after adjustments. However, no associations were found between CIMT or carotid plaque morphology and TBI or ABI in non-diabetic participants. CONCLUSIONS: CIMT and carotid plaque morphology were significantly associated with TBI in patients with diabetes.

Original publication




Journal article


Diabetes Res Clin Pract

Publication Date





245 - 251


Ankle-brachial index, Carotid intima-media thickness, Carotid plaque, Diabetes, Toe-brachial index, Adult, Ankle Brachial Index, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Peripheral Arterial Disease, Plaque, Atherosclerotic, Prognosis, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors