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Background: Transfusions are a common intervention within pediatrics and require unique considerations to optimize patient care. Poor knowledge of evidence-based transfusion practice can lead to misuse of transfusion therapy and harm. While there have been assessments of transfusion medicine knowledge of physicians caring for adult patients, there is little data regarding pediatricians. Study Design and Methods: Using a published transfusion medicine knowledge exam for internal medicine physicians as a backbone, pediatric transfusion medicine experts, using an iterative process, developed a pediatric-specific examination. Pilot testing and Rasch analysis, a method used in high-stakes testing, was used to validate the exam. The exam and a previously validated survey on transfusion medicine training, attitudes, and perceived ability were administered to pediatric residents. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics as well as comparisons of exam scores based on survey responses. Results: 330 pediatric residents from 19 sites in 6 countries participated in the study. The vast majority (91%) of residents had obtained blood product consent. The mean exam score was 37.1% (range 9.5–71.4%) with no statistical differences based on amount or perceived quality of transfusion medicine education or perceived ability. Discussion: A rigorously validated exam has now been developed that can be used to assess pediatric transfusion medicine knowledge. A large international group of pediatric residents performed poorly on the exam demonstrating a pressing need for improved transfusion medicine education to ensure safe and appropriate administration of blood components to infants and children.

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