Prognostic impact of acute pulmonary triggers in patients with takotsubo syndrome: new insights from the International Takotsubo Registry.
Kato K., Cammann VL., Napp LC., Szawan KA., Micek J., Dreiding S., Levinson RA., Petkova V., Würdinger M., Patrascu A., Sumalinog R., Gili S., Clarenbach CF., Kohler M., Wischnewsky M., Citro R., Vecchione C., Bossone E., Neuhaus M., Franke J., Meder B., Jaguszewski M., Noutsias M., Knorr M., Heiner S., D'Ascenzo F., Dichtl W., Burgdorf C., Kherad B., Tschöpe C., Sarcon A., Shinbane J., Rajan L., Michels G., Pfister R., Cuneo A., Jacobshagen C., Karakas M., Koenig W., Pott A., Meyer P., Roffi M., Banning A., Wolfrum M., Cuculi F., Kobza R., Fischer TA., Vasankari T., Airaksinen KEJ., Budnik M., Dworakowski R., MacCarthy P., Kaiser C., Osswald S., Galiuto L., Chan C., Bridgman P., Beug D., Delmas C., Lairez O., Gilyarova E., Shilova A., Gilyarov M., El-Battrawy I., Akin I., Kozel M., Tousek P., Winchester DE., Galuszka J., Ukena C., Poglajen G., Carrilho-Ferreira P., Hauck C., Paolini C., Bilato C., Sano M., Ishibashi I., Takahara M., Himi T., Kobayashi Y., Prasad A., Rihal CS., Liu K., Schulze PC., Bianco M., Jörg L., Rickli H., Pestana G., Nguyen TH., Böhm M., Maier LS., Pinto FJ., Widimský P., Felix SB., Opolski G., Braun-Dullaeus RC., Rottbauer W., Hasenfuß G., Pieske BM., Schunkert H., Borggrefe M., Thiele H., Bauersachs J., Katus HA., Horowitz JD., Di Mario C., Münzel T., Crea F., Bax JJ., Lüscher TF., Ruschitzka F., Ghadri JR., Templin C.
AIMS: Acute pulmonary disorders are known physical triggers of takotsubo syndrome (TTS). This study aimed to investigate prevalence of acute pulmonary triggers in patients with TTS and their impact on outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry and screened for triggering factors and comorbidities. Patients were categorized into three groups (acute pulmonary trigger, chronic lung disease, and no lung disease) to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes. Of the 1670 included patients with TTS, 123 (7%) were identified with an acute pulmonary trigger, and 194 (12%) had a known history of chronic lung disease. The incidence of cardiogenic shock was highest in patients with an acute pulmonary trigger compared with those with chronic lung disease or without lung disease (17% vs. 10% vs. 9%, P = 0.017). In-hospital mortality was also higher in patients with an acute pulmonary trigger than in the other two groups, although not significantly (5.7% vs. 1.5% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.13). Survival analysis demonstrated that patients with an acute pulmonary trigger had the worst long-term outcome (P = 0.002). The presence of an acute pulmonary trigger was independently associated with worse long-term mortality (hazard ratio 2.12, 95% confidence interval 1.33-3.38; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that TTS is related to acute pulmonary triggers in 7% of all TTS patients, which accounts for 21% of patients with physical triggers. The presence of acute pulmonary trigger is associated with a severe in-hospital course and a worse long-term outcome.