Acute myeloid leukaemia presenting with mediastinal myeloid sarcoma: report of three cases and review of literature.
Ramasamy K., Lim Z., Pagliuca A., Devereux S., Ho AYL., Mufti GJ.
Although myeloid sarcomas (MS) are frequently associated with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), the occurrence of mediastinal MS is a much rarer event. The authors describe a distinct group of three AML patients with mediastinal MS and complex cytogenetics presenting at their centre over a 7-year period. Clinical features consistent with superior vena caval obstruction were noted at presentation in two of the three patients. Mediastinal mass was detected on routine chest radiography, and biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of MS. One patient relapsed after consolidation chemotherapy and died from progressive disease. Two patients underwent allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplant, but succumbed to transplant related complications. Review of mediastinal MS over the last 20 years shows that a significant proportion of patients have complex cytogenetic abnormalities and a poor long-term prognosis. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential and patients should be managed along the lines of high risk AML.