Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) Phenocopy Due to a Cell Cycle Division 73 (CDC73) Variant.
Lines KE., Nachtigall LB., Dichtel LE., Cranston T., Boon H., Zhang X., Kooblall KG., Stevenson M., Thakker RV.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the combined occurrence of parathyroid tumors, pituitary adenomas, and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs). MEN1 is caused by germline MEN1 mutations in > 75% of patients, and the remaining 25% of patients may have mutations in unidentified genes or represent phenocopies with mutations in genes such as cell cycle division 73 (CDC73), the calcium sensing receptor (CASR), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B), which are associated with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 1, and MEN4, respectively. Here, we report a heterozygous c.1138C>T (p.Leu380Phe) CDC73 germline variant in a clinically diagnosed MEN1 patient, based on combined occurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly, and a PNEN. Characterization of the PNEN confirmed it was a neuroendocrine neoplasm as it immuno-stained positively for chromogranin and glucagon. The rare variant p.Leu380Phe occurred in a highly conserved residue, and further analysis using RNA-Scope indicated that it was associated with a significant reduction in CDC73 expression in the PNEN. Previously, CDC73 mutations have been reported to be associated with tumors of the parathyroids, kidneys, uterus, and exocrine pancreas. Thus, our report of a patient with PNEN and somatotrophinoma who had a CDC73 variant, provides further evidence that CDC73 variants may result in a MEN1 phenocopy.