No-reflow phenomenon in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: still the Achilles' heel of the interventionalist.
Ciofani JL., Allahwala UK., Scarsini R., Ekmejian A., Banning AP., Bhindi R., De Maria GL.
Improvements in systems, technology and pharmacotherapy have significantly changed the prognosis over recent decades in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. These clinical achievements have, however, begun to plateau and it is becoming increasingly necessary to consider novel strategies to further improve outcomes. Approximately a third of patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction will suffer from coronary no-reflow (NR), a condition characterized by poor myocardial perfusion despite patent epicardial arteries. The presence of NR impacts significantly on clinical outcomes including left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure and death, yet conventional management algorithms neither assess the risk of NR nor treat NR. This review will provide a contemporary overview on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of NR.