Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) acts in synergy with other inflammatory stimuli such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to induce the maturation of migratory-type monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). However, PGE2 has been reported to inhibit IL-12p70 production by MoDCs and to promote the generation of Th2 T cell responses. We demonstrate here that the addition of PGE2 to TNF for the maturation of MoDCs enhanced CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferative responses to neoantigen and recall antigen, and enhanced Th1-type responses. The increased stimulatory capacity of MoDCs matured with PGE2 was associated with a fully mature, migratory-type MoDC phenotype and more rapid down-regulation of the expression of inflammatory chemokines, with up-regulated expression of the constitutive chemokines TARC and MDC. In addition, although MoDCs matured with TNF and PGE2 selectively produced the inhibitory IL-12p40 subunit at steady state, they were able to produce the bioactive IL-12p70 heterodimer after stimulation with CD40 ligand and/or IFN-gamma. Despite increased IL-6 mRNA expression, MoDCs matured with PGE2 did not overcome the suppressive effects of CD4+ CD25+ T cells in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions. In conclusion, MoDCs matured in the presence of PGE2 display characteristics of more efficient antigen-presenting cells that might be optimal for use in cancer vaccine-based clinical trials.

Original publication




Journal article


Int Immunol

Publication Date





1561 - 1572


Antigen Presentation, Antigens, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Cancer Vaccines, Cell Differentiation, Cells, Cultured, Chemokines, Dendritic Cells, Dinoprostone, Gene Expression Regulation, Humans, Monocytes, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, Th1 Cells