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The primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), rare inherited diseases characterized by severe dysfunction of immunity, have been successfully treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) in childhood. Controversy exists regarding optimal timing and use of Allo-HSCT in adults, due to lack of experience and previous poor outcomes. Twenty-nine consecutive adult patients, with a mean age at transplant of 24 years (range, 17-50 years), underwent Allo-HSCT. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) included fludarabine (Flu)/melphalan/alemtuzumab (n = 20), Flu/busulfan (Bu)/alemtuzumab (n = 8), and Flu/Bu/antithymocyte globulin (n = 1). Stem cell donors were matched unrelated donors or mismatched unrelated donors (n = 18) and matched related donors (n = 11). Overall survival (OS), event-free survival, transplant-related mortality (TRM), acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease incidence and severity, time to engraftment, lineage-specific chimerism, immune reconstitution, and discontinuation of immunoglobulin replacement therapy were recorded. OS at 3 years for the whole cohort was 85.2%. The rarer PID patients without chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) achieved an OS at 3 years of 88.9% (n = 18), compared with 81.8% for CGD patients (n = 11). TRM was low with only 4 deaths observed at a median follow-up of 3.5 years. There were no cases of early or late rejection. In all surviving patients, either stable mixed chimerism or full donor chimerism were observed. At last follow-up, 87% of the surviving patients had no evidence of persistent or recurrent infections. Allo-HSCT is safe and effective in young adult patients with severe PID and should be considered the treatment of choice where an appropriate donor is available.

Original publication

DOI

10.1182/blood-2017-09-807487

Type

Journal article

Journal

Blood

Publication Date

22/02/2018

Volume

131

Pages

917 - 931

Keywords

Adolescent, Adult, Cohort Studies, Female, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Humans, Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes, Middle Aged, Prognosis, Survival Rate, Transplantation Conditioning, Transplantation, Homologous, Young Adult