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The primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), rare inherited diseases characterized by severe dysfunction of immunity, have been successfully treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) in childhood. Controversy exists regarding optimal timing and use of Allo-HSCT in adults, due to lack of experience and previous poor outcomes. Twenty-nine consecutive adult patients, with a mean age at transplant of 24 years (range, 17-50 years), underwent Allo-HSCT. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) included fludarabine (Flu)/melphalan/alemtuzumab (n = 20), Flu/busulfan (Bu)/alemtuzumab (n = 8), and Flu/Bu/antithymocyte globulin (n = 1). Stem cell donors were matched unrelated donors or mismatched unrelated donors (n = 18) and matched related donors (n = 11). Overall survival (OS), event-free survival, transplant-related mortality (TRM), acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease incidence and severity, time to engraftment, lineage-specific chimerism, immune reconstitution, and discontinuation of immunoglobulin replacement therapy were recorded. OS at 3 years for the whole cohort was 85.2%. The rarer PID patients without chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) achieved an OS at 3 years of 88.9% (n = 18), compared with 81.8% for CGD patients (n = 11). TRM was low with only 4 deaths observed at a median follow-up of 3.5 years. There were no cases of early or late rejection. In all surviving patients, either stable mixed chimerism or full donor chimerism were observed. At last follow-up, 87% of the surviving patients had no evidence of persistent or recurrent infections. Allo-HSCT is safe and effective in young adult patients with severe PID and should be considered the treatment of choice where an appropriate donor is available.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





917 - 931


Adolescent, Adult, Cohort Studies, Female, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Humans, Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes, Middle Aged, Prognosis, Survival Rate, Transplantation Conditioning, Transplantation, Homologous, Young Adult