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Hereditary hyperuricemia may occur as part of a syndromic disorder or as an isolated nonsyndromic disease, and over 20 causative genes have been identified. Here, we report the use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to establish a diagnosis in a family in which individuals were affected with gout, hyperuricemia associated with reduced fractional excretion of uric acid, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and secondary hyperparathyroidism, that are consistent with familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN). However, single gene testing had not detected mutations in the uromodulin (UMOD) or renin (REN) genes, which cause approximately 30-90% of FJHN. WGS was therefore undertaken, and this identified a heterozygous c.226G>C (p.Gly76Arg) missense variant in the paired box gene 2 (PAX2) gene, which co-segregated with renal tubulopathy in the family. PAX2 mutations are associated with renal coloboma syndrome (RCS), which is characterized by abnormalities in renal structure and function, and anomalies of the optic nerve. Ophthalmological examination in two adult brothers affected with hyperuricemia, gout, and CKD revealed the presence of optic disc pits, consistent with optic nerve coloboma, thereby revising the diagnosis from FJHN to RCS. Thus, our results demonstrate the utility of WGS analysis in establishing the correct diagnosis in disorders with multiple etiologies.

Original publication




Journal article


Am J Med Genet A

Publication Date



ADTKD, CKD, RCS, optic disc pits, papillorenal syndrome