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The present study examined the association between fish consumption and nephropathy in American Indians.In the family cohort of the Strong Heart Study, we investigated 2,261 participants with baseline examination between 2001 and 2003 and follow-up examination between 2006 and 2008. The average follow-up period was 5.4 years. We defined fish consumption as the sum of dietary intake of tuna, fried fish, and nonfried fish obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Nephropathy was defined as microalbuminuria (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR]: 30 to 299 mg/g), macroalbuminuria (urinary ACR: ≥ 300 mg/g), or an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Using regression models, we examined the association between fish consumption measured at baseline and 2 outcomes in nephropathy present at follow-up, albuminuria, or renal impairment, and change in urinary ACR or estimated glomerular filtration rate between baseline and follow-up examinations.The prevalence of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, and renal impairment was 13%, 3%, and 4%, respectively. The fish items consumed by the participants were predominantly deep-fried. We found no associations between fish consumption and any measure of nephropathy after adjusting for demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and dietary factors.Dietary intake of predominantly fried fish was not associated with a lower risk of nephropathy in American Indians.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation

Publication Date





221 - 227


MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom.


Animals, Fishes, Humans, Diabetic Nephropathies, Albuminuria, Creatinine, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Diet, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Cohort Studies, Follow-Up Studies, Life Style, Aged, Middle Aged, Indians, North American, Female, Male, Interviews as Topic, Surveys and Questionnaires