Rescue aortic balloon valvuloplasty during procedural cardiac arrest while treating critical left main stem stenosis: a case report.
Benenati S., Scarsini R., De Maria GL., Banning AP.
Background: Best timing for coronary revascularization in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who was a candidate for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is still matter of debate. Case summary: We here report the case of an 87-year-old man with severe AS presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a highly complex and calcific left main stem (LMS) lesion. Rotablation-assisted percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was attempted but was complicated by post-stenting rapidly evolving haemodynamic impairment. A rescue 'pacing-free' balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) was performed to rescue the patients, allowing prompt restoration of cardiac output and coronary perfusion. Discussion: According to guidelines and preliminary evidence, decision should be performed case by case and based on the degree of severity and complexity of either AS or coronary disease. The strategy of treating coronary lesions first may limit the risk of potential ischaemic complications during TAVI. However, the downside of it is the risk of hemodynamic crash with potential catastrophic evolution in case of PCI complications in presence of severe AS. A 'bailout BAV' can be considered as a salvage-strategy in case of complex and complicated LMS-PCI in the context of severe AS and advanced status of haemodynamic impairment. This approach must be seen as very last resort, while appropriate pre-procedural planning is still highly recommended in order to prevent potentially fatal procedural complications in this fragile clinical setting.