Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of flavone acetic acid.
Kerr DJ., Kaye SB., Cassidy J., Bradley C., Rankin EM., Adams L., Setanoians A., Young T., Forrest G., Soukop M.
Flavone acetic acid is the second in a series of compounds based on the flavonoid aglycone ring structure to be clinically evaluated in malignant disease. Preclinical studies have indicated that a minimum plasma level of 150 micrograms/ml is required before therapeutic efficacy (in a wide range of experimental tumors) is seen in mice; both in vitro and in vivo studies also suggest that the duration of drug exposure is crucial in determining activity. Thus a Phase I trial has been performed in a total of 54 patients using 3 schedules, i.e., a 1-, 3-, and 6-h infusion. In each case, treatment was given once weekly for a minimum of 3 weeks. The maximum tolerated doses were 6.4, 6.4, and 10.0 g/m2, respectively. Dose limiting toxicity was denoted by an intense feeling of warmth and flushing with a 1-h infusion, hypotension with a 3-h infusion, and hypotension and diarrhea with a 6-h infusion. No objective responses were seen in this Phase I trial. The recommended doses for Phase II trials of flavone acetic acid in Europe are 4.8 g/m2 over 1 h or 8.6 g/m2 over 6 h. At these doses the peak plasma concentrations obtained are 650 and 388 micrograms/ml, respectively. Total drug exposure (assessed by an area under the curve greater than 100 micrograms/ml) was approximately 50% greater for the 6-h schedule. This Phase I trial indicates that peak plasma concentrations associated with experimental activity are achievable in humans, although optimal drug exposure times have not yet been defined.