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OBJECTIVES: To determine whether it was feasible to use a haemorrhage assessment tool (HAT) within a trauma trial and whether the data obtained could differentiate patients who had achieved haemostasis. BACKGROUND: Major haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, affecting 40% of trauma patients. Clinical trials evaluating haemostatic interventions often use transfusion outcomes as a primary endpoint. Transfusion is highly dependent on local practice, limiting its reliability as a robust, transferable endpoint. METHODS: A five-point HAT questionnaire was applied to participants enrolled into the EFIT-1 trial. This RCT evaluated the feasibility of administering a 6 g fibrinogen concentrate to patients with severe trauma haemorrhage. RESULTS: Of participants, 98% completed a HAT; 75% participants had 'achieved haemostasis' at the time of tool completion, as determined by clinical acumen alone. HAT scores were able to differentiate which participants required transfusion after 3 h. Of participants, 56% were transfused red blood cells when they scored 0-2, compared to 17% with HAT scores between 3 and 5. CONCLUSION: This study has confirmed the feasibility of using a HAT during the emergency care of patients suffering trauma haemorrhage, and future studies should be conducted to determine its value as an endpoint in haemostasis studies.

Original publication




Journal article


Transfus Med

Publication Date





454 - 459


haemorrhage asssessment tool, major haemorrhage, randomised controlled trial, trauma, Emergency Medical Services, Erythrocyte Transfusion, Female, Hemorrhage, Hemostasis, Humans, Male, Pilot Projects, Surveys and Questionnaires, Wounds and Injuries