The selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulator (SPPARMα) paradigm: conceptual framework and therapeutic potential : A consensus statement from the International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS) and the Residual Risk Reduction Initiative (R3i) Foundation.
Fruchart J-C., Santos RD., Aguilar-Salinas C., Aikawa M., Al Rasadi K., Amarenco P., Barter PJ., Ceska R., Corsini A., Després J-P., Duriez P., Eckel RH., Ezhov MV., Farnier M., Ginsberg HN., Hermans MP., Ishibashi S., Karpe F., Kodama T., Koenig W., Krempf M., Lim S., Lorenzatti AJ., McPherson R., Nuñez-Cortes JM., Nordestgaard BG., Ogawa H., Packard CJ., Plutzky J., Ponte-Negretti CI., Pradhan A., Ray KK., Reiner Ž., Ridker PM., Ruscica M., Sadikot S., Shimano H., Sritara P., Stock JK., Su T-C., Susekov AV., Tartar A., Taskinen M-R., Tenenbaum A., Tokgözoğlu LS., Tomlinson B., Tybjærg-Hansen A., Valensi P., Vrablík M., Wahli W., Watts GF., Yamashita S., Yokote K., Zambon A., Libby P.
In the era of precision medicine, treatments that target specific modifiable characteristics of high-risk patients have the potential to lower further the residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Correction of atherogenic dyslipidemia, however, remains a major unmet clinical need. Elevated plasma triglycerides, with or without low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), offer a key modifiable component of this common dyslipidemia, especially in insulin resistant conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. The development of selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulators (SPPARMα) offers an approach to address this treatment gap. This Joint Consensus Panel appraised evidence for the first SPPARMα agonist and concluded that this agent represents a novel therapeutic class, distinct from fibrates, based on pharmacological activity, and, importantly, a safe hepatic and renal profile. The ongoing PROMINENT cardiovascular outcomes trial is testing in 10,000 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, elevated triglycerides, and low levels of HDL-C whether treatment with this SPPARMα agonist safely reduces residual cardiovascular risk.