Prof David G Jackson

Research Area: Immunology
Scientific Themes: Immunology and Molecular, Cell & Systems Biology
Keywords: Lymphatic system, lymphatic endothelium, Lyve-1, hyaluronan receptor, leukocyte trafficking and tumour
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The tortuous journey made by dendritic cells and other antigen charged leucocytes from tissues to lymph nodes via afferent lymphatic vessels for immune activation

The tortuous journey made by dendritic cells and other antigen charged leucocytes from tissues to ...

Confocal images of lymphatic vessels within skin and intestine (Jackson group)

Confocal images of lymphatic vessels within skin and intestine (Jackson group)

Fluorescent imaging of cutaneous lymphatic vessels and blood vessels in whole mount sections using LYVE-1 and CD34 mAbs (Louise Johnson)

Fluorescent imaging of cutaneous lymphatic vessels and blood vessels in whole mount sections using ...

An individual dendritic cell (DC) captured during its entry to a lymphatic vessel in mouse skin (Louise Johnson)

An individual dendritic cell (DC) captured during its entry to a lymphatic vessel in mouse skin ...

Cartoon showing hypothetical involvement of LYVE-1 in regulating transit of cells across lymphatic vessel endothelium

Cartoon showing hypothetical involvement of LYVE-1 in regulating transit of cells across lymphatic ...

Similarities between LYVE-1 and CD44 HA binding domains (Banerji et al 2010)

Similarities between LYVE-1 and CD44 HA binding domains (Banerji et al 2010)

Comparison of HA binding residues within LYVE-1 and CD44 ligand interaction domains

Comparison of HA binding residues within LYVE-1 and CD44 ligand interaction domains

My group is interested in the lymphatic system. This elaborate network of vessels collects fluids leaked into tissues from the blood vessels, and returns it as lymph to the venous circulation. More importantly, the filtering of lymph through intervening lymph nodes allows the immune system to constantly monitor the periphery for microbial antigens, and for the metabolites and macromolecular degradation products known as PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns) danger signals and DAMPs (damage associated molecular patterns) that trigger innate and then adaptive immune responses. The lymphatic vessels act as conduits not only for soluble antigens, but also for dendritic cells, monocytes, neutrophils and other leukocytes that transport phagocytosed antigens to the lymph nodes to initiate and shape immune responses. The lymphatics are also a pipeline for metastasizing tumour cells to spread to distant tissues, and to colonize lymph nodes where they can manipulate the immune response, and prevent their recognition by the immune system. The recognition that lymphatics play such an important role in each of these critical processes has brought the field to the forefront in immunology and cell biology, and now is an exciting time to be involved in the research.

Our focus is on the mechanisms by which leukocytes, tumour cells and certain bacterial pathogens enter the lymphatic vessels from the surrounding tissues, the adhesion molecules and chemokines they engage, and the transmigratory mechanisms involved. We are also interested in the fate of leukocytes, particularly neutrophils, arriving at draining lymph nodes via the lymph route, and the consequences of their arrival for altering the quality of the immune response.

An integral part of our work focusses on the hyaluronan receptor Lyve-1 (LYmphatic Vessel Endothelial receptor 1), which was originally cloned and identified in my laboratory and is emerging as a regulator of endothelial junctional permeability and leukocyte transmigration. Using Lyve-1-/- mice and a panel of fluorescently tagged transgenic mice in models of inflammation and cancer, combined with confocal and super-resolution imaging and in vitro cell biology techniques, we are studying the involvement of this key receptor and its ligand hyaluronan in leukocyte trafficking, microbe dissemination and tumour metastasis. Our aim is to understand these key biological processes, and ultimately to manipulate them for therapeutic advantage. My group applies a variety of techniques, and for example we are interested in determining the crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain in Lyve-1 in order to understand how interactions with hyaluronan during lymphatic trafficking are regulated by receptor homodimerization and  clustering. Our studies also extend beyond hyaluronan receptors to include the roles of lymphatic derived chemokines such as CCL21, CX3CL (fractalikne) and IL-8 in leukocyte chemotaxis and molecules that influence endothelial junctional permeability.

Some relevant publications from my group

“Structure of the regulatory hyaluronan-binding domain in the inflammatory leukocyte homing receptor CD44.” Teriete, P., Banerji, S., Noble, M., Blundell, C.D., Wright, A.J., Pickford, A.R., Lowe, E., Mahoney, D.J., Tammi, M.I., Kahmann, J.D., Campbell, I.D., Day, A.J. & Jackson, D.G. (2004) Mol Cell. 13, 483-496.

 “Structure function relationships in the lymphatic system and implications for cancer biology.” Witte MH, Jones K, Wilting J, Dictor M, Selg M, McHale N, Gershenwald JE, Jackson DG. (2006) Cancer Metastasis Rev. 25, 159-184.

“An inflammation-induced mechanism  for leukocyte transmigration of lymphatic endothelium.” Johnson,  L.A., Clasper, S. Holt, A., Lalor, P., Baban, D. & Jackson, D.G. (2006) J. Exp. Med. 203, 2763-2777.

 “Normal lymphatic development and function in mice deficient for the lymphatic hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1.” Gale, N.W., Prevo, R., Espinosa-Fematt, J., Dominguez, M., Ferguson, D.J., Yancopoulos, G., Thurston, G. & Jackson, D.G. (2007) Mol. Cell. Biol. 27, 595-604.

 “Structures of the CD44-hyaluronan complex provide insight into a fundamental carbohydrate-protein interaction.” Banerji, S., Wright, A.J., Noble, M., Mahoney, D.J., Campbell, I.D., Day, A.J. & Jackson, D.G. (2007) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 14,  234-239.

“A novel gene expression profile in lymphatics associated with tumor growth and nodal metastasis.” Clasper S, Royston D, Baban D, Cao Y, Ewers S, Butz S, Vestweber D, Jackson DG. (2008) Cancer Res. 68, 7293-7303.

“Cell traffic and the lymphatic endothelium” Johnson LA, Jackson DG. (2008) Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1131, 119-133.

“A mechanism of sialylation functionally silences the hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 in lymphatic endothelium.” Nightingale T, Frayne MEF, Clasper S, Banerji S, Jackson DG. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 3935-3945.

“Blockade of a CD8+ T cell response by targeting lymphatic recruitment of antigen presenting cells” Teoh, D., Johnson, LA., Hanke, T., McMichael, AJ. Jackson, DG. (2009) J. Immunol. 182: 2425-2431.

"Immunological functions of Hyaluronan and its receptors in the lymphatics"  Jackson, D.G. (2009) Immunol. Rev. 230; 216-231.

"Inflammation-induced secretion of CCL21 in lymphatic endothelium is a key regulator of integrin-mediated dendritic cell transmigration" Johnson, L.A. and Jackson, D.G. (2010) Int. Immunol. 10, 839-849. 

"Analysis of CD44-hyaluronan interactions in an artificial membrane system, insights into the distinct binding properties of high and low molecular weight hyaluronan" (2010) Wolny PM, Banerji S, Gounou C, Brisson AR, Day AJ, Jackson DG, Richter RP. J Biol Chem. 285, 30170-30180.

"The chemokine CX3CL1 (Fractalkine) promotes trafficking of dendritic cells through inflamed lymphatics" Johnson L.A. & Jackson D.G. (2013) J. Cell Sci. 126, 5247-5258.

“Control of dendritic cell trafficking in lymphatics by chemokines” Johnson, L.A. and Jackson, D.G. (2014) Angiogenesis 17, 335-345.

"Progression of Carcinogen-Induced Fibrosarcomas is Associated with the Accumulation of Naive CD4+ T cells via Blood Vessels and Lymphatics"  Ondondo, B. Jones, E,  Hindley, J. Cutting, S. Smart, K. Bridgeman, H. Matthews, K. Ladell, K. Price, D. Jackson, D.G. Godkin,A. Ager, A & Gallimore, A. (2014) Int. J. Cancer. 134, 2156-2167.

“Lymphatic regulation of Cell trafficking” Jackson, DG. (2014) J. Clin. Cell. Immunol. 5, 258. (Special issue “Role of lymphatics in Immunity” http://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/lymphatic-regulation-of-cellular-trafficking-2155-9899-5-258.php?aid=31116

“CLEC-2 signalling regulates clustering of Podoplanin and platelet adhesion” Pollitt AY, Poulter NS, Gitz E, Navarro-Nu Ntildeez L, Wang YJ, Hughes CE, Thomas SG, Nieswandt B, Douglas MR, Owen DM, Jackson DG, Dustin ML, Watson SP. (2014) J Biol Chem. 289, 35695-35710.

 Neutrophils rapidly transit inflamed lymphatic vessel endothelium via integrin dependent proteolysis and lipoxin induced junctional retraction”Rigby, DA, Ferguson, DJP. Johnson, L.A. & Jackson, D.G. (2015) J. Leukoc. Biol. 98, 897-912 (see also Special Editorial).

 “Rapid Lymphatic dissemination of encapsulated group A streptococci via lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 interaction” Lynskey, N. Banerji, S, Johnson, L. Jackson*, DG. & Sriskandan*, S. (2015) PLoS Pathogens  Sept 19  1-19 *Joint Senior Authors

“Binding of hyaluronan to the native lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor LYVE-1 is critically dependent on surface clustering and polymer organisation” Lawrance, W, Banerji, S, Day, A.J., Bhattacharjee, S. & Jackson, D.G. (2016). J. Biol. Chem. 291, 8014-8030.

"Immunohistochemical methods for measuring tissue lymphangiogenesis." Royston DJ, Clasper, S. & Jackson DG (2016) Methods Mol Biol. 1430, 35-48.

“Micromechanical Analysis of the Hyaluronan-Rich Matrix Surrounding the Oocyte Reveals a Uniquely Soft and Elastic Composition” Chen, X, Bonfiglio, R., Banerji, S., Jackson, D.G., Salustri, A., & Richter, R. (2016) Biophys. J. 110, 2779-2789.

“Critical importance of fixation conditions in super-resolution imaging of receptor clustering” Stanly TA, Fritzsche M, BanerjiS, GarcíaE, Bernardino de la SernaJ., JacksonDG* & EggelingC*. (Joint senior authors) (2016) Biol. Open 15;5(9):1343-1350.

“A Single molecule assay to probe monovalent and multivalent bonds between hyaluronan and its key leukocyte receptor CD44 under force” Bano, F, Banerji, S., Howarth, M. Jackson DG & Richter RP (2016) Scientific Rep. 6, 34176; doi: 10.1038/srep34176

“Homodimerisation of the lymphatic endothelial receptor LYVE-1 through a Redox Labile Disulfide is critical for Hyaluronan Binding in Lymphatic Endothelium” Banerji, S., Lawrance, W., Metcalfe, C., Briggs, DC, Yamauchi, A,, Dushek, O., van der Merwe, PA., Day, AJ & Jackson, DG  (2016) J. Biol. Chem. 291, 25004-25018.

Name Department Institution Country
Prof Christian Eggeling Investigative Medicine Division Oxford University, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine United Kingdom
Prof Shiranee Sriskandan Imperial College London United Kingdom
Prof Ralf Richter Centre for Co-operative Research in Biomaterials, (CIC BiomaGUNE) San Sebastian Spain
Prof Dontscho Kerjaschki Medical University of Vienna Austria
Prof Tony Day Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Matrix Research, University of Manchester United Kingdom
Dr Simon Milling University of Glasgow United Kingdom
Prof David Greaves Univesity of Oxford, Dunn School of Pathology United Kingdom
Prof P. Anton van der Merwe School of Pathology University of Oxford United Kingdom
Prof Melody Swartz EPFL Lausanne, Laboratory of lymphatic and Cancer Bioengineering Switzerland
Professor E. Yvonne Jones FRS FMedSci (NDM) Structural Biology Oxford University, Henry Wellcome Building of Genomic Medicine United Kingdom
Professor Robert Gilbert (NDM) Structural Biology Oxford University, Henry Wellcome Building of Genomic Medicine United Kingdom
Prof Veronique Angeli Microbiology National University of Singapore Singapore
Johnson LA, Banerji S, Lawrance W, Gileadi U, Prota G, Holder KA, Roshorm YM, Hanke T, Cerundolo V, Gale NW, Jackson DG. 2017. Dendritic cells enter lymph vessels by hyaluronan-mediated docking to the endothelial receptor LYVE-1. Nat Immunol, 18 (7), pp. 762-770. | Show Abstract | Read more

Trafficking of tissue dendritic cells (DCs) via lymph is critical for the generation of cellular immune responses in draining lymph nodes (LNs). In the current study we found that DCs docked to the basolateral surface of lymphatic vessels and transited to the lumen through hyaluronan-mediated interactions with the lymph-specific endothelial receptor LYVE-1, in dynamic transmigratory-cup-like structures. Furthermore, we show that targeted deletion of the gene Lyve1, antibody blockade or depletion of the DC hyaluronan coat not only delayed lymphatic trafficking of dermal DCs but also blunted their capacity to prime CD8(+) T cell responses in skin-draining LNs. Our findings uncovered a previously unknown function for LYVE-1 and show that transit through the lymphatic network is initiated by the recognition of leukocyte-derived hyaluronan.

Banerji S, Lawrance W, Metcalfe C, Briggs DC, Yamauchi A, Dushek O, van der Merwe PA, Day AJ, Jackson DG. 2016. Homodimerization of the Lymph Vessel Endothelial Receptor LYVE-1 through a Redox-labile Disulfide Is Critical for Hyaluronan Binding in Lymphatic Endothelium. J Biol Chem, 291 (48), pp. 25004-25018. | Show Abstract | Read more

The lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor LYVE-1 is implicated in the uptake of hyaluronan (HA) and trafficking of leukocytes to draining lymph nodes. Yet LYVE-1 has only weak affinity for hyaluronan and depends on receptor clustering and higher order ligand organization for durable binding in lymphatic endothelium. An unusual feature of LYVE-1 not found in other HA receptors is the potential to form disulfide-linked homodimers. However, their influence on function has not been investigated. Here we show LYVE-1 homodimers are the predominant configuration in lymphatic endothelium in vitro and in vivo, and formation solely requires the unpaired cysteine residue Cys-201 within the membrane-proximal domain, yielding a 15-fold higher HA binding affinity and an ∼67-fold slower off-rate than the monomer. Moreover, we show non-dimerizing LYVE-1 mutants fail to bind HA even when expressed at high densities in lymphatic endothelial cells or artificially cross-linked with antibody. Consistent with these findings, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicates the Cys-201 interchain disulfide forms a hinge that maintains the homodimer in an "open scissors" conformation, likely allowing arrangement of the two HA binding domains for mutual engagement with ligand. Finally, we demonstrate the Cys-201 interchain disulfide is highly labile, and selective reduction with TCEP-HCl disrupts LYVE-1 homodimers, ablating HA binding. These findings reveal binding is dependent not just on clustering but also on the biochemical properties of LYVE-1 homodimers. They also mark LYVE-1 as the first Link protein superfamily member requiring covalent homodimerization for function and suggest the interchain disulfide acts as a redox switch in vivo.

Bano F, Banerji S, Howarth M, Jackson DG, Richter RP. 2016. A single molecule assay to probe monovalent and multivalent bonds between hyaluronan and its key leukocyte receptor CD44 under force. Sci Rep, 6 (1), pp. 34176. | Show Abstract | Read more

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a category of linear, anionic polysaccharides, are ubiquitous in the extracellular space, and important extrinsic regulators of cell function. Despite the recognized significance of mechanical stimuli in cellular communication, however, only few single molecule methods are currently available to study how monovalent and multivalent GAG·protein bonds respond to directed mechanical forces. Here, we have devised such a method, by combining purpose-designed surfaces that afford immobilization of GAGs and receptors at controlled nanoscale organizations with single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). We apply the method to study the interaction of the GAG polymer hyaluronan (HA) with CD44, its receptor in vascular endothelium. Individual bonds between HA and CD44 are remarkably resistant to rupture under force in comparison to their low binding affinity. Multiple bonds along a single HA chain rupture sequentially and independently under load. We also demonstrate how strong non-covalent bonds, which are versatile for controlled protein and GAG immobilization, can be effectively used as molecular anchors in SMFS. We thus establish a versatile method for analyzing the nanomechanics of GAG·protein interactions at the level of single GAG chains, which provides new molecular-level insight into the role of mechanical forces in the assembly and function of GAG-rich extracellular matrices.

Stanly TA, Fritzsche M, Banerji S, García E, Bernardino de la Serna J, Jackson DG, Eggeling C. 2016. Critical importance of appropriate fixation conditions for faithful imaging of receptor microclusters. Biol Open, 5 (9), pp. 1343-1350. | Show Abstract | Read more

Receptor clustering is known to trigger signalling events that contribute to critical changes in cellular functions. Faithful imaging of such clusters by means of fluorescence microscopy relies on the application of adequate cell fixation methods prior to immunolabelling in order to avoid artefactual redistribution by the antibodies themselves. Previous work has highlighted the inadequacy of fixation with paraformaldehyde (PFA) alone for efficient immobilisation of membrane-associated molecules, and the advantages of fixation with PFA in combination with glutaraldehyde (GA). Using fluorescence microscopy, we here highlight how inadequate fixation can lead to the formation of artefactual clustering of receptors in lymphatic endothelial cells, focussing on the transmembrane hyaluronan receptors LYVE-1 and CD44, and the homotypic adhesion molecule CD31, each of which displays their native diffuse surface distribution pattern only when visualised with the right fixation techniques, i.e. PFA/GA in combination. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) confirms that the artefactual receptor clusters are indeed introduced by residual mobility. In contrast, we observed full immobilisation of membrane proteins in cells that were fixed and then subsequently permeabilised, irrespective of whether the fixative was PFA or PFA/GA in combination. Our study underlines the importance of choosing appropriate sample preparation protocols for preserving authentic receptor organisation in advanced fluorescence microscopy.

Chen X, Bonfiglio R, Banerji S, Jackson DG, Salustri A, Richter RP. 2016. Micromechanical Analysis of the Hyaluronan-Rich Matrix Surrounding the Oocyte Reveals a Uniquely Soft and Elastic Composition. Biophys J, 110 (12), pp. 2779-2789. | Show Abstract | Read more

The cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC) matrix is an extended coat that forms around the oocyte a few hours before ovulation and plays vital roles in oocyte biology. Here, we analyzed the micromechanical response of mouse COC matrix by colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy. We found that the COC matrix is elastic insofar as it does not flow and its original shape is restored after force release. At the same time, the COC matrix is extremely soft. Specifically, the most compliant parts of in vivo and in vitro expanded COC matrices yielded Young's modulus values of 0.5 ± 0.1 Pa and 1.6 ± 0.3 Pa, respectively, suggesting both high porosity and a large mesh size (≥100 nm). In addition, the elastic modulus increased progressively with indentation. Furthermore, using optical microscopy to correlate these mechanical properties with ultrastructure, we discovered that the COC is surrounded by a thick matrix shell that is essentially devoid of cumulus cells and is enhanced upon COC expansion in vivo. We propose that the pronounced nonlinear elastic behavior of the COC matrix is a consequence of structural heterogeneity and serves important functions in biological processes such as oocyte transport in the oviduct and sperm penetration.

Lawrance W, Banerji S, Day AJ, Bhattacharjee S, Jackson DG. 2016. Binding of Hyaluronan to the Native Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Receptor LYVE-1 Is Critically Dependent on Receptor Clustering and Hyaluronan Organization. J Biol Chem, 291 (15), pp. 8014-8030. | Show Abstract | Read more

The lymphatic endothelial receptor LYVE-1 has been implicated in both uptake of hyaluronan (HA) from tissue matrix and in facilitating transit of leukocytes and tumor cells through lymphatic vessels based largely onin vitrostudies with recombinant receptor in transfected fibroblasts. Curiously, however, LYVE-1 in lymphatic endothelium displays little if any binding to HAin vitro, and this has led to the conclusion that the native receptor is functionally silenced, a feature that is difficult to reconcile with its proposedin vivofunctions. Nonetheless, as we reported recently, LYVE-1 can function as a receptor for HA-encapsulated Group A streptococci and mediate lymphatic dissemination in mice. Here we resolve these paradoxical findings and show that the capacity of LYVE-1 to bind HA is strictly dependent on avidity, demanding appropriate receptor self-association and/or HA multimerization. In particular, we demonstrate the prerequisite of a critical LYVE-1 threshold density and show that HA binding may be elicited in lymphatic endothelium by surface clustering with divalent LYVE-1 mAbs. In addition, we show that cross-linking of biotinylated HA in streptavidin multimers or supramolecular complexes with the inflammation-induced protein TSG-6 enables binding even in the absence of LYVE-1 cross-linking. Finally, we show that endogenous HA on the surface of macrophages can engage LYVE-1, facilitating their adhesion and transit across lymphatic endothelium. These results reveal LYVE-1 as a low affinity receptor tuned to discriminate between different HA configurations through avidity and establish a new mechanistic basis for the functions ascribed to LYVE-1 in matrix HA binding and leukocyte traffickingin vivo.

Royston DJ, Clasper S, Jackson DG. 2016. Immunohistochemical Methods for Measuring Tissue Lymphangiogenesis. Methods Mol Biol, 1430 pp. 35-48. | Show Abstract | Read more

The field of lymphatic research has benefited enormously from the discovery of "marker" proteins that permit not only the identification and quantitation of lymphatic vessels in tissue sections for tumor pathology but also the isolation of primary lymphatic endothelial cells for basic research. This chapter focuses on the use of these markers for the immunohistochemical analysis of lymphangiogenesis in both frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue sections and discusses current protocols including newer versions employing biotin tyramide amplification and their associated problems.

Lynskey NN, Banerji S, Johnson LA, Holder KA, Reglinski M, Wing PA, Rigby D, Jackson DG, Sriskandan S. 2015. Rapid Lymphatic Dissemination of Encapsulated Group A Streptococci via Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Receptor-1 Interaction. PLoS Pathog, 11 (9), pp. e1005137. | Show Abstract | Read more

The host lymphatic network represents an important conduit for pathogen dissemination. Indeed, the lethal human pathogen group A streptococcus has a predilection to induce pathology in the lymphatic system and draining lymph nodes, however the underlying basis and subsequent consequences for disease outcome are currently unknown. Here we report that the hyaluronan capsule of group A streptococci is a crucial virulence determinant for lymphatic tropism in vivo, and further, we identify the lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 as the critical host receptor for capsular hyaluronan in the lymphatic system. Interference with this interaction in vivo impeded bacterial dissemination to local draining lymph nodes and, in the case of a hyper-encapsulated M18 strain, redirected streptococcal entry into the blood circulation, suggesting a pivotal role in the manifestation of streptococcal infections. Our results reveal a novel function for bacterial capsular polysaccharide in directing lymphatic tropism, with potential implications for disease pathology.

Rigby DA, Ferguson DJ, Johnson LA, Jackson DG. 2015. Neutrophils rapidly transit inflamed lymphatic vessel endothelium via integrin-dependent proteolysis and lipoxin-induced junctional retraction. J Leukoc Biol, 98 (6), pp. 897-912. | Show Abstract | Read more

Neutrophils are the first leukocyte population to be recruited from the circulation following tissue injury or infection, where they play key roles in host defense. However, recent evidence indicates recruited neutrophils can also enter lymph and shape adaptive immune responses downstream in draining lymph nodes. At present, the cellular mechanisms regulating neutrophil entry to lymphatic vessels and migration to lymph nodes are largely unknown. Here, we have investigated these events in an in vivo mouse Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination model, ex vivo mouse dermal explants, and in vitro Transwell system comprising monolayers of primary human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells. We demonstrate that neutrophils are reliant on endothelial activation for adhesion, initially via E-selectin and subsequently, by integrin-mediated binding to ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, combined with CXCL8-dependent chemotaxis. Moreover, we reveal that integrin-mediated neutrophil adhesion plays a pivotal role in subsequent transmigration by focusing the action of matrix metalloproteinases and the 15-lipoxygenase-1-derived chemorepellent 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid at neutrophil:endothelial contact sites to induce transient endothelial junctional retraction and rapid, selective neutrophil trafficking. These findings reveal an unexpectedly intimate collaboration between neutrophils and the lymphatic vessel endothelium, in which these phagocytic leukocytes act as pathfinders for their own transit during inflammation.

Schmaus A, Klusmeier S, Bauer J, Thiele W, Rothley M, Quagliata L, Dimmler A, Jackson D, Sleeman J. 2015. Small hyaluronan oligosaccharides: novel regulators of lymphangiogenesis and metastasis CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL METASTASIS, 32 (3), pp. 236-237.

Xue L, Fergusson J, Salimi M, Panse I, Ussher JE, Hegazy AN, Vinall SL, Jackson DG, Hunter MG, Pettipher R et al. 2015. Prostaglandin D<inf>2</inf> and leukotriene E<inf>4</inf> synergize to stimulate diverse T<inf>H</inf>2 functions and T<inf>H</inf>2 cell/neutrophil crosstalk Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 135 (5), pp. 1358-1366e11. | Show Abstract | Read more

© 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Background Prostaglandin D 2 (PGD 2 ) and cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are lipid mediators derived from mast cells, which activate T H 2 cells. The combination of PGD 2 and cysLTs (notably cysteinyl leukotriene E 4 [LTE 4 ]) enhances T H 2 cytokine production. However, the synergistic interaction of cysLTs with PGD 2 in promoting T H 2 cell activation is still poorly understood. The receptors for these mediators are drug targets in the treatment of allergic diseases, and hence understanding their interaction is likely to have clinical implications. Objective We aimed to comprehensively define the roles of PGD 2 , LTE 4 , and their combination in activating human T H 2 cells and how such activation might allow the T H 2 cells to engage downstream effectors, such as neutrophils, which contribute to the pathology of allergic responses. Methods The effects of PGD 2 , LTE 4 , and their combination on human T H 2 cell gene expression were defined by using a microarray, and changes in specific inflammatory pathways were confirmed by means of PCR array, quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, Luminex, flow cytometry, and functional assays, including analysis of downstream neutrophil activation. Blockade of PGD 2 and LTE 4 was tested by using TM30089, an antagonist of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T H 2 cells, and montelukast, an antagonist of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1. Results PGD 2 and LTE 4 altered the transcription of a wide range of genes and induced diverse functional responses in T H 2 cells, including cell adhesion, migration, and survival and cytokine production. The combination of these lipids synergistically or additively enhanced T H 2 responses and, strikingly, induced marked production of diverse nonclassical T H 2 inflammatory mediators, including IL-22, IL-8, and GM-CSF, at concentrations sufficient to affect neutrophil activation. Conclusions PGD 2 and LTE 4 activate T H 2 cells through different pathways but act synergistically to promote multiple downstream effector functions, including neutrophil migration and survival. Combined inhibition of both PGD 2 and LTE 4 pathways might provide an effective therapeutic strategy for allergic responses, particularly those involving interaction between T H 2 cells and neutrophils, such as in patients with severe asthma.

Pollitt AY, Poulter NS, Gitz E, Navarro-Nuñez L, Wang YJ, Hughes CE, Thomas SG, Nieswandt B, Douglas MR, Owen DM et al. 2014. Syk and Src family kinases regulate C-type lectin receptor 2 (CLEC-2)-mediated clustering of podoplanin and platelet adhesion to lymphatic endothelial cells. J Biol Chem, 289 (52), pp. 35695-35710. | Show Abstract | Read more

The interaction of C-type lectin receptor 2 (CLEC-2) on platelets with Podoplanin on lymphatic endothelial cells initiates platelet signaling events that are necessary for prevention of blood-lymph mixing during development. In the present study, we show that CLEC-2 signaling via Src family and Syk tyrosine kinases promotes platelet adhesion to primary mouse lymphatic endothelial cells at low shear. Using supported lipid bilayers containing mobile Podoplanin, we further show that activation of Src and Syk in platelets promotes clustering of CLEC-2 and Podoplanin. Clusters of CLEC-2-bound Podoplanin migrate rapidly to the center of the platelet to form a single structure. Fluorescence lifetime imaging demonstrates that molecules within these clusters are within 10 nm of one another and that the clusters are disrupted by inhibition of Src and Syk family kinases. CLEC-2 clusters are also seen in platelets adhered to immobilized Podoplanin using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. These findings provide mechanistic insight by which CLEC-2 signaling promotes adhesion to Podoplanin and regulation of Podoplanin signaling, thereby contributing to lymphatic vasculature development.

Xue L, Fergusson J, Salimi M, Panse I, Ussher JE, Hegazy AN, Vinall SL, Jackson DG, Hunter MG, Pettipher R et al. 2015. Prostaglandin D2 and leukotriene E4 synergize to stimulate diverse TH2 functions and TH2 cell/neutrophil crosstalk. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 135 (5), pp. 1358-66.e1-11. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are lipid mediators derived from mast cells, which activate TH2 cells. The combination of PGD2 and cysLTs (notably cysteinyl leukotriene E4 [LTE4]) enhances TH2 cytokine production. However, the synergistic interaction of cysLTs with PGD2 in promoting TH2 cell activation is still poorly understood. The receptors for these mediators are drug targets in the treatment of allergic diseases, and hence understanding their interaction is likely to have clinical implications. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to comprehensively define the roles of PGD2, LTE4, and their combination in activating human TH2 cells and how such activation might allow the TH2 cells to engage downstream effectors, such as neutrophils, which contribute to the pathology of allergic responses. METHODS: The effects of PGD2, LTE4, and their combination on human TH2 cell gene expression were defined by using a microarray, and changes in specific inflammatory pathways were confirmed by means of PCR array, quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, Luminex, flow cytometry, and functional assays, including analysis of downstream neutrophil activation. Blockade of PGD2 and LTE4 was tested by using TM30089, an antagonist of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells, and montelukast, an antagonist of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1. RESULTS: PGD2 and LTE4 altered the transcription of a wide range of genes and induced diverse functional responses in TH2 cells, including cell adhesion, migration, and survival and cytokine production. The combination of these lipids synergistically or additively enhanced TH2 responses and, strikingly, induced marked production of diverse nonclassical TH2 inflammatory mediators, including IL-22, IL-8, and GM-CSF, at concentrations sufficient to affect neutrophil activation. CONCLUSIONS: PGD2 and LTE4 activate TH2 cells through different pathways but act synergistically to promote multiple downstream effector functions, including neutrophil migration and survival. Combined inhibition of both PGD2 and LTE4 pathways might provide an effective therapeutic strategy for allergic responses, particularly those involving interaction between TH2 cells and neutrophils, such as in patients with severe asthma.

Jackson DG. 2014. Lymphatic Regulation of Cellular Trafficking. J Clin Cell Immunol, 5 (05), | Show Abstract | Read more

Lymphatic vessels play vital roles in immune surveillance and immune regulation by conveying antigen loaded dendritic cells, memory T cells, macrophages and neutrophils from the peripheral tissues to draining lymph nodes where they initiate as well as modify immune responses. Until relatively recently however, there was little understanding of how entry and migration through lymphatic vessels is organized or the specific molecular mechanisms that might be involved. Within the last decade, the situation has been transformed by an explosion of knowledge generated largely through the application of microscopic imaging, transgenic animals, specific markers and function blocking mAbs that is beginning to provide a rational conceptual framework. This article provides a critical review of the recent literature, highlighting seminal discoveries that have revealed the fascinating ultrastructure of leucocyte entry sites in lymphatic vessels, as well as generating controversies over the involvement of integrin adhesion, chemotactic and haptotactic mechanisms in DC entry under normal and inflamed conditions. It also discusses the major changes in lymphatic architecture that occur during inflammation and the different modes of leucocyte entry and trafficking within inflamed lymphatic vessels, as well as presenting a timely update on the likely role of hyaluronan and the major lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 in leucocyte transit.

Ondondo B, Jones E, Hindley J, Cutting S, Smart K, Bridgeman H, Matthews KK, Ladell K, Price DA, Jackson DG et al. 2014. Progression of carcinogen-induced fibrosarcomas is associated with the accumulation of naïve CD4+ T cells via blood vessels and lymphatics. Int J Cancer, 134 (9), pp. 2156-2167. | Show Abstract | Read more

The tumor microenvironment comprises newly formed blood and lymphatic vessels which shape the influx, retention and departure of lymphocytes within the tumor mass. Thus, by influencing the intratumoral composition of lymphocytes, these vessels affect the manner in which the adaptive immune system responds to the tumor, either promoting or impairing effective antitumor immunity. In our study, we utilized a mouse model of carcinogen-induced fibrosarcoma to examine the composition of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes during tumor progression. In particular, we sought to determine whether CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) became enriched during tumor progression thereby contributing to tumor-driven immunosuppression. This was not the case as the proportion of Tregs and effector CD4(+) T cells actually declined within the tumor owing to the unexpected accumulation of naïve T cells. However, we found no evidence for antigen-driven migration of these T cells or for their participation in an antitumor immune response. Our data support the notion that lymphocytes can enter tumors via aberrantly formed blood and lymphatic vessels. Such findings suggest that targeting both the tumor vasculature and lymphatics will alter the balance of lymphocyte subpopulations that enter the tumor mass. A consideration of this aspect of tumor immunology may be critical to the success of solid cancer immunotherapies.

Ondondo B, Jones E, Hindley J, Cutting S, Smart K, Bridgeman H, Matthews KK, Ladell K, Price DA, Godkin A et al. 2014. Progression of carcinogen-induced fibrosarcomas is associated with the accumulation of naïve CD4+ T cells via blood vessels and lymphatics International Journal of Cancer, 134 (9), pp. 2156-2167. | Show Abstract | Read more

The tumor microenvironment comprises newly formed blood and lymphatic vessels which shape the influx, retention and departure of lymphocytes within the tumor mass. Thus, by influencing the intratumoral composition of lymphocytes, these vessels affect the manner in which the adaptive immune system responds to the tumor, either promoting or impairing effective antitumor immunity. In our study, we utilized a mouse model of carcinogen-induced fibrosarcoma to examine the composition of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes during tumor progression. In particular, we sought to determine whether CD4 Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) became enriched during tumor progression thereby contributing to tumor-driven immunosuppression. This was not the case as the proportion of Tregs and effector CD4 T cells actually declined within the tumor owing to the unexpected accumulation of naïve T cells. However, we found no evidence for antigen-driven migration of these T cells or for their participation in an antitumor immune response. Our data support the notion that lymphocytes can enter tumors via aberrantly formed blood and lymphatic vessels. Such findings suggest that targeting both the tumor vasculature and lymphatics will alter the balance of lymphocyte subpopulations that enter the tumor mass. A consideration of this aspect of tumor immunology may be critical to the success of solid cancer immunotherapies. What's new? It is well known that a tumors' microenvironment can impair the anti-tumor immune response. The culprits are usually assumed to be various suppressor cells and cytokines. In this study, however, the authors found that seemingly innocuous, naïve T cells may also play a significant role - simply by accumulating and possibly out-competing activated effector cells within the tumor. A better understanding of the signals produced by the tumor microenvironment may allow researchers to alter this T-cell pool, thus enhancing the immune response. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

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Johnson LA, Jackson DG. 2014. Control of dendritic cell trafficking in lymphatics by chemokines Angiogenesis, 17 (2), pp. 335-345. | Show Abstract | Read more

Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial participants in maintaining immune surveillance of the periphery and initiating primary immune responses within the draining lymph nodes. The afferent lymphatic vessels provide a conduit for this essential trafficking and, as this review will describe, play an active role in regulating DC migration. Afferent lymphatic capillaries support constitutive trafficking of DCs from resting, non-inflamed tissue, to maintain tolerance against self-antigen and to provide immune surveillance. Following exposure to pathogens or pro-inflammatory cytokines, DCs mature from phagocytes to professional antigen-presenting cells, whilst the lymphatic endothelium adopts an activated phenotype to support the ensuing increase in leukocyte trafficking. The lymphatic endothelial-derived chemokine CCL21 plays a well-characterized role in directing migration of CCR7 + DC in both resting and acute inflammatory conditions. However, efficient trafficking of DCs from inflamed tissue also demands additional chemokine-receptor pairs. Thus, entry of DCs to activated lymphatic vessels is an intricately regulated multi-step process involving numerous chemokines and adhesion molecules. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Johnson LA, Jackson DG. 2014. Control of dendritic cell trafficking in lymphatics by chemokines. Angiogenesis, 17 (2), pp. 335-345. | Show Abstract | Read more

Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial participants in maintaining immune surveillance of the periphery and initiating primary immune responses within the draining lymph nodes. The afferent lymphatic vessels provide a conduit for this essential trafficking and, as this review will describe, play an active role in regulating DC migration. Afferent lymphatic capillaries support constitutive trafficking of DCs from resting, non-inflamed tissue, to maintain tolerance against self-antigen and to provide immune surveillance. Following exposure to pathogens or pro-inflammatory cytokines, DCs mature from phagocytes to professional antigen-presenting cells, whilst the lymphatic endothelium adopts an activated phenotype to support the ensuing increase in leukocyte trafficking. The lymphatic endothelial-derived chemokine CCL21 plays a well-characterized role in directing migration of CCR7+ DC in both resting and acute inflammatory conditions. However, efficient trafficking of DCs from inflamed tissue also demands additional chemokine-receptor pairs. Thus, entry of DCs to activated lymphatic vessels is an intricately regulated multi-step process involving numerous chemokines and adhesion molecules.

Johnson LA, Jackson DG. 2013. The chemokine CX3CL1 promotes trafficking of dendritic cells through inflamed lymphatics. J Cell Sci, 126 (Pt 22), pp. 5259-5270. | Show Abstract | Read more

Tissue inflammation is characterised by increased trafficking of antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) from the periphery via afferent lymphatics to draining lymph nodes, with a resulting stimulation of ongoing immune responses. Transmigration across lymphatic endothelium constitutes the first step in this process and is known to involve the chemokine CCL21 and its receptor CCR7. However, the precise details of DC transit remain obscure and it is likely that additional chemokine-receptor pairs have roles in lymphatic vessel entry. Here, we report that the transmembrane chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine) is induced in inflamed lymphatic endothelium, both in vitro in TNF-α-treated human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs) and in vivo in a mouse model of skin hypersensitivity. However, unlike blood endothelial cells, which express predominantly transmembrane CX3CL1 as a leukocyte adhesion molecule, HDLECs shed virtually all CX3CL1 at their basolateral surface through matrix metalloproteinases. We show for the first time that both recombinant soluble CX3CL1 and endogenous secreted CX3CL1 promote basolateral-to-luminal migration of DCs across HDLEC monolayers in vitro. Furthermore, we show in vivo that neutralising antibodies against CX3CL1 dramatically reduce allergen-induced trafficking of cutaneous DCs to draining lymph nodes as assessed by FITC skin painting in mice. Finally, we show that deletion of the CX3CL1 receptor in Cx3cr1(-/-) DCs results in markedly delayed lymphatic trafficking in vivo and impaired translymphatic migration in vitro, thus establishing a previously unrecognised role for this atypical chemokine in regulating DC trafficking through the lymphatics.

Heinzelbecker J, Kempf KM, Kurz K, Steidler A, Weiss C, Jackson DG, Bolenz C, Haecker A, Trojan L. 2013. Lymph vessel density in seminomatous testicular cancer assessed with the specific lymphatic endothelium cell markers D2-40 and LYVE-1: correlation with pathologic parameters and clinical outcome. Urol Oncol, 31 (7), pp. 1386-1394. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of lymph vessel density (LVD) and lymphangiogenesis in seminomatous testicular cancer (STC) by using the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) markers LYVE-1 and D2-40. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Paraffin embedded tumor specimens from 40 patients with STC were stained by specific D2-40 and Lyve-1 antibodies. LVD was measured in different representative and standardized areas. Fluorescence double immunostaining for Lyve-1 and Ki-67 was performed and results were correlated with clinicopathologic data. The median follow-up period was 55 (range 10-135) months. RESULTS: Mean intratumoral LVD (D2-40: 1.30 ± 1.99; Lyve-1: 1.82 ± 2.34) was significantly lower than peritumoral LVD (D2-40: 4.94 ± 2.58; Lyve-1: 4.62 ± 2.73) and LVD in nontumoral areas (D2-40: 4.81 ± 3.79; Lyve-1: 4.22 ± 3.19). There was no significant difference between LVD measures when using D2-40 or LYVE-1. Detection rates of lymphatic vascular invasion (LVI) were significantly higher than in conventional HE-stained sections (77.5% vs. 52.5%). No proliferating lymphatic vessels were found. CONCLUSIONS: We found that LVD is decreased within tumor areas of STC. Despite a higher peritumoral LVD, no signs of proliferating endothelial cells were observed, suggesting a lack of lymphangiogenesis in STC. Detection of LVI can be optimized by specific D2-40 or LYVE-1 staining.

Ogunbiyi S, Chinien G, Field D, Humphries J, Burand K, Sawyer B, Jeffrey S, Mortimer P, Clasper S, Jackson D et al. 2011. Molecular characterization of dermal lymphatic endothelial cells from primary lymphedema skin. Lymphat Res Biol, 9 (1), pp. 19-30. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic endothelial cells from primary lymphedema skin have never been cultured nor characterized. A subgroup of patients with primary lymphedema undergo surgery to bring about an improvement in their quality of life. The aim of this study was to culture and characterize LECs from the skin of these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lymphatic endothelial cells were isolated and cultured from the skin of patients with primary lymphedema and from normal skin. The isolated cells were compared in their ability to form microvascular networks in a three-dimensional culture medium, and in their response to treatment with vascular endothelial growth factors A, C, and D. Whole tissue transcriptional profiling was carried out on two pools of isolated lymphatic endothelial cells--one from primary lymphedema skin and the other from normal skin. Lymphatic endothelial cells from primary lymphedema skin form tubule-like structures when cultured in three-dimensional media. They respond in a similar fashion to stimulation with the vascular endothelial growth factors A, C, and D. Comparative analysis between lymphedema tissue and normal tissue (fold change >2) showed differential expression of 2793 genes (5% of all transcripts), 2184 upregulated, and 609 downregulated. Genes involved in cellular apoptosis (vascular endothelial growth inhibitor, zinc finger protein), extracellular matrix turnover (matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor-16), and type IV collagen deposition were upregulated. Various pro-inflammatory genes (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-32, E-selectin) were downregulated. CONCLUSION: Cellular adhesion, apoptosis, and increased extracellular matrix turnover play a more prominent role in primary lymphedema than previously thought. In addition, the acute inflammatory response is attenuated as evidenced by the downregulation of various pro-inflammatory genes.This sheds further light on the interplay of the various pathological processes taking place in primary lymphedema.

Johnson LA, Jackson DG. 2010. Inflammation-induced secretion of CCL21 in lymphatic endothelium is a key regulator of integrin-mediated dendritic cell transmigration. Int Immunol, 22 (10), pp. 839-849. | Show Abstract | Read more

Tissue inflammation induces rapid mobilization of antigen-charged dendritic cells (DCs), which migrate to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics to elicit the immune response. This increase in DC trafficking has been shown to require integrin-dependent adhesion to ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, expressed on inflamed lymphatic endothelium. In addition, both constitutive- and inflammation-induced DC migration involves the chemokine CCL21, which most likely triggers integrin activation on DC via its receptor CCR7. Recently, however, conflicting evidence has suggested that DC entry occurs independently of integrins, implying that the role of CCL21 in lymphatics is purely chemotactic. Hence, while CCL21 is reported to be inducible during inflammation, the details of this induction and the role of CCL21 during initial DC trafficking are unclear. Here, we have characterized both the production of CCL21 and the mechanism of its action in DC transmigration using primary human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs) and a mouse model of skin contact hypersensitivity. We showed that CCL21 is constitutively expressed intracellularly but rapidly secreted after exposure to the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α following de novo RNA and protein synthesis. Furthermore, using in vitro transmigration assays, we showed that endogenous HDLEC-derived CCL21 stimulates DC translymphatic migration by a predominantly chemotactic mechanism in resting HDLEC and by a β2 integrin-mediated mechanism in TNFα-stimulated HDLEC. These results imply a direct role for CCL21 in lymphatic transmigration that involves the selective use of integrin activation in inflammation.

Banerji S, Hide BR, James JR, Noble ME, Jackson DG. 2010. Distinctive properties of the hyaluronan-binding domain in the lymphatic endothelial receptor Lyve-1 and their implications for receptor function. J Biol Chem, 285 (14), pp. 10724-10735. | Show Abstract | Read more

The lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan (HA) receptor Lyve-1 is a member of the Link protein superfamily most similar to the leukocyte HA receptor CD44. However, the structure of Lyve-1 and the nature of its interaction with ligand are obscure. Here we present new evidence that Lyve-1 is functionally distinct from CD44. Using truncation mutagenesis we confirm that Lyve-1 in common with CD44 contains an extended HA-binding unit, comprising elements flanking the N and C termini of the consensus lectin-like Link module, bridged by a third conserved disulfide linkage that is critical for HA binding. In addition, we identify six essential residues Tyr-87, Ile-97, Arg-99, Asn-103, Lys-105, and Lys-108 that define a compact HA-binding surface on Lyve-1, encompassing the epitope for an adhesion-blocking monoclonal antibody 3A, in an analogous position to the HA-binding surface in CD44. The overtly electrostatic character of HA binding in Lyve-1 and its sensitivity to ionic strength (IC(50) of 150 mm NaCl) contrast markedly with CD44 (IC(50) > 2 m NaCl) in which HA binding is mediated by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, unlike the extended Link module in CD44, which binds HA efficiently when expressed as a soluble monomer (K(d) = 65.7 mum), that of Lyve-1 requires artificial dimerization, although the full ectodomain is active as a monomer (K(d) = 35.6 mum). Finally, full-length Lyve-1 did not form stable dimers in binding-competent 293T transfectants when assessed using bioluminescent resonance energy transfer. These results reveal that elements additional to the extended Link module are required to stabilize HA binding in Lyve-1 and indicate important structural and functional differences with CD44.

Wolny PM, Banerji S, Gounou C, Brisson AR, Day AJ, Jackson DG, Richter RP. 2010. Analysis of CD44-hyaluronan interactions in an artificial membrane system: insights into the distinct binding properties of high and low molecular weight hyaluronan. J Biol Chem, 285 (39), pp. 30170-30180. | Show Abstract | Read more

CD44 is a major cell surface receptor for the large polydisperse glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA). Binding of the long and flexible HA chains is thought to be stabilized by the multivalent nature of the sugar molecule. In addition, high and low molecular weight forms of HA provoke distinct proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects upon binding to CD44 and can deliver either proliferative or antiproliferative signals in appropriate cell types. Despite the importance of such interactions, however, neither the stoichiometry of multivalent HA binding at the cell surface nor the molecular basis for functional distinction between different HA size categories is understood. Here we report on the design of a supported lipid bilayer system that permits quantitative analysis of multivalent binding through presentation of CD44 in a stable, natively oriented manner and at controlled density. Using this system in combination with biophysical techniques, we show that the amount of HA binding to bilayers that are densely coated with CD44 increases as a function of HA size, with half-maximal saturation at ∼30 kDa. Moreover, reversible binding was confined to the smaller HA species (molecular weight of ≤10 kDa), whereas the interaction was essentially irreversible with larger polymers. The amount of bound HA decreased with decreasing receptor surface density, but the stability of binding was not affected. From a physico-chemical perspective, the binding properties of HA share many similarities with the typical behavior of a flexible polymer as it adsorbs onto a homogeneously attractive surface. These findings provide new insight into the multivalent nature of CD44-HA interactions and suggest a molecular basis for the distinct biological properties of different size fractions of hyaluronan.

Kliskey K, Williams K, Yu J, Jackson D, Urban J, Athanasou N. 2009. The presence and absence of lymphatic vessels in the adult human intervertebral disc: relation to disc pathology. Skeletal Radiol, 38 (12), pp. 1169-1173. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: Although the normal adult human intervertebral disc is considered to be avascular, vascularised cellular fibrous tissue can be found in pathological conditions involving the disc such as disc herniation. Whether lymphatics vessels form a component of this reparative tissue is not known as the presence or absence of lymphatics in herniated and normal disc tissue is not known. We examined spinal tissues and discectomy specimens for the presence of lymphatics. METHODS: The examination used immunohistochemistry to identify the specific lymphatic endothelial cell markers,podoplanin and LYVE1. RESULTS: Lymphatic vessels were not found in the nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus of intact, non-herniated lumbar and thoracic discs but were present in the surrounding ligaments. Ingrowth of fibrous tissue was seen in 73% of herniated disc specimens of which 36% contained LYVE1+/podoplanin + lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels were not seen in the sacrum and coccyx or biopsies of four sacrococcygeal chordomas, but they were noted in surrounding extra-osseous fat and fibrous tissue at the edge of the infiltrating tumour. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that lymphatic vessels are not present in the normal adult intervertebral disc but that, when there is extrusion of disc material into surrounding soft tissue, there is ingrowth of reparative fibrous tissue containing lymphatic vessels. Our findings also indicate that chordoma, a tumour of notochordal origin, spreads to regional lymph nodes via lymphatics in para-spinal soft tissues.

Royston D, Jackson DG. 2009. Mechanisms of lymphatic metastasis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma. J Pathol, 217 (5), pp. 608-619. | Show Abstract | Read more

The invasion of lymphatic vessels by colorectal cancer (CRC) and its subsequent spread to draining lymph nodes is a key determinant of prognosis in this common and frequently fatal malignancy. Although tumoural lymphangiogenesis is assumed to contribute to this process, review of the current literature fails to support any notion of a simple correlation between lymphatic vessel density and CRC metastasis. Furthermore, attempts to correlate the expression of various lymphangiogenic growth factors, most notably VEGF-C and VEGF-D, with the lymphatic metastasis of CRC have provided contradictory results. Recent evidence from animal and human models of tumour metastasis suggests that complex functional and biochemical interactions between the microvasculature of tumours and other cell types within the tumour microenvironment may play a pivotal role in the behaviour of commonly metastasizing tumours. Indeed, previous insights into tumoural blood vessels have provided candidate markers of tumoural angiogenesis that are currently the subject of intense investigation as future therapeutic targets. In this review article we survey the current evidence relating lymphangiogenesis and lymphangiogenic growth factor production to metastasis by CRC, and attempt to provide some insight into the apparent discrepancies within the literature. In particular, we also discuss some new and provocative insights into the properties of tumoural lymphatics suggesting that they have specific expression profiles distinct from those of normal lymphatic vessels and that appear to promote metastasis. These findings raise the exciting prospect of future biomarkers of lymphatic metastasis and identify potential targets for new generation anti-tumour therapies.

Teoh D, Johnson LA, Hanke T, McMichael AJ, Jackson DG. 2009. Blocking development of a CD8+ T cell response by targeting lymphatic recruitment of APC. J Immunol, 182 (4), pp. 2425-2431. | Show Abstract | Read more

Generating a protective immune response to viral infection is known to depend upon the priming and clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells by Ag-loaded dendritic cells (DC) within secondary lymphoid tissue. However, the actual initiation of the response involves critical upstream events that control the recruitment of mature Ag-charged DC from the periphery via afferent lymphatics, events that are still only partly understood. Recent evidence has revealed that transmigration of lymphatic endothelium by DC is regulated by the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 both in vitro and in vivo. These findings imply that lymphatic entry may be an important rate-limiting step in primary immunity and a possible target for immune intervention. In this study, we have explored such possibilities using an F(5) TCR-transgenic mouse model to assess the contribution of lymphatic cell adhesion molecules in the CD8(+) T cell response to influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP). We show for the first time that immunization with ICAM-1- and VCAM-1-blocking mAbs can impair the T cell response in lymph node-draining sites of dermally administered nucleoprotein vaccine (MVA.HIVA.NP) by targeting lymphatic uptake of Ag-loaded DC ahead of other cell adhesion molecule-dependent events. These results reveal lymphatic entry as an important step that may be rate limiting in the development of immunity and reconfirm its potential as a target for localized immunotherapy in inflammation and tissue rejection.

Nightingale TD, Frayne ME, Clasper S, Banerji S, Jackson DG. 2009. A mechanism of sialylation functionally silences the hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 in lymphatic endothelium. J Biol Chem, 284 (6), pp. 3935-3945. | Show Abstract | Read more

The major lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1, a Link superfamily glycoprotein similar to the hyaluronan-binding/inflammatory leukocyte homing receptor CD44, was initially implicated in hyaluronan (HA)-mediated cell adhesion and lymph-borne hyaluronan metabolism. However, the apparently normal phenotype of Lyve-1 knock-out mice and the recent demonstration that the receptor undergoes cytokine-induced endocytosis independent of HA uptake have cast doubt on such functions. Here we present new data that reconcile these anomalies by showing that LYVE-1 is functionally "silenced" in a cell-specific fashion by autoinhibitory glycosylation. We demonstrate that LYVE-1 transfected in HEK 293T fibroblasts and Jurkat T cells is competent to bind HA, whereas the endogenous receptor in cultured lymphatic endothelial cells or the receptor transfected in Chinese hamster ovary and HeLa cells is not. Moreover, through a combination of mutagenesis and functional analysis in HEK 293T fibroblasts and glycosylation-defective Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, we reveal that the inhibitory mechanism is reversible and is exerted by terminal sialylation, most likely through alpha2-3 or alpha2-6 linkage to O-glycans. Finally, we provide evidence that the mechanism operates in vivo by showing that native LYVE-1 in primary lymphatic endothelial cells is extensively sialylated and that HA binding can be reactivated by neuraminidase treatment of the soluble ectodomain. These results reveal unexpected complexity in the regulation of LYVE-1 function and raise the possibility that this receptor, like CD44, may become active after appropriate unmasking in vivo.

Clasper S, Jackson DG. 2009. Immunohistochemical methods for measuring tissue lymphangiogenesis. Methods Mol Biol, 467 pp. 79-91. | Show Abstract | Read more

The field of lymphatic research has benefited enormously from the recent discovery of "marker" proteins that permit not only the identification and quantitation of lymphatic vessels in tissue sections for tumor pathology but also the isolation of primary lymphatic endothelial cells for basic research. This chapter focuses on the use of these markers for the immunohistochemical analysis of lymphangiogenesis in both frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue sections and discusses current protocols and their associated problems.

Jackson DG. 2009. Immunological functions of hyaluronan and its receptors in the lymphatics. Immunol Rev, 230 (1), pp. 216-231. | Show Abstract | Read more

The lymphatic system is best known for draining interstitial fluid from the tissues and returning it to the blood circulation. However, the lymphatic system also provides the means for immune surveillance in the immune system, acting as conduits that convey soluble antigens and antigen-presenting cells from the tissues to the lymph nodes, where primary lymphocyte responses are generated. One macromolecule that potentially unites these two functions is the large extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), a chemically simple copolymer of GlcNAc and GlcUA that fulfills a diversity of functions from danger signal to adhesive substratum, depending upon chain length and particular interaction with its many different binding proteins and a small but important group of receptors. The two most abundant of these receptors are CD44, which is expressed on leukocytes that traffic through the lymphatics, and LYVE-1, which is expressed almost exclusively on lymphatic endothelium. Curiously, much of the HA within the tissues is turned over and degraded in lymph nodes, by a poorly understood process that occurs in the medullary sinuses. Indeed there are several mysterious aspects to HA in the lymphatics. Here we cover some of these by reviewing recent findings in the biology of lymphatic endothelial cells and their possible roles in HA homeostasis together with fresh insights into the complex and enigmatic nature of LYVE-1, its regulation of HA binding by sialylation and self-association, and its potential function in leukocyte trafficking.

Mahendra G, Kliskey K, Williams K, Hollowood K, Jackson D, Athanasou NA. 2008. Intratumoural lymphatics in benign and malignant soft tissue tumours. Virchows Arch, 453 (5), pp. 457-464. | Show Abstract | Read more

Soft tissue sarcomas do not generally metastasise via lymphatics, and the presence or absence of lymphatic vessels within sarcomas and benign soft tissue tumours is not known. In this study, we determined whether lymphatic vessels were present in a wide range of benign and malignant soft tissue lesions by examining intratumoural expression of the lymphatic endothelial cell markers, Lyve-1 and podoplanin. Intratumoural Lyve-1+/podoplanin+ lymphatics were not identified in sarcomas apart from all cases of epithelioid sarcoma (a tumour which is known to metastasise to lymph nodes) and a few cases of leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Intratumoural lymphatics were also absent in most benign soft tissue tumours. Reparative and inflammatory soft tissue lesions contained lymphatics, as did all (pseudosarcomatous) proliferative myofibroblastic lesions including nodular, proliferative and ischaemic fasciitis, elastofibroma, nuchal fibroma and deep fibromatosis. Our results show that most soft tissue sarcomas do not contain intratumoural lymphatics, a finding which is consistent with the infrequent finding of sarcoma metastasis to lymph nodes. In contrast to fibrosarcoma and a number of other malignant spindle cell tumours, proliferative fibroblastic/myofibroblastic lesions of soft tissue contain intralesional lymphatic vessels.

Leite MI, Strobel P, Marx A, Vincent A, Jackson D, Willcox N. 2008. Lymphatic vessels and high endothelial venules in adult human thymi; Their disposition and reactivation in myasthenia gravis JOURNAL OF NEUROIMMUNOLOGY, 203 (2), pp. 178-178.

Clasper S, Royston D, Baban D, Cao Y, Ewers S, Butz S, Vestweber D, Jackson DG. 2008. A novel gene expression profile in lymphatics associated with tumor growth and nodal metastasis. Cancer Res, 68 (18), pp. 7293-7303. | Show Abstract | Read more

Invasion of lymphatic vessels is a key step in the metastasis of primary tumors to draining lymph nodes. Although the process is enhanced by tumor lymphangiogenesis, it is unclear whether this is a consequence of increased lymphatic vessel number, altered lymphatic vessel properties, or both. Here we have addressed the question by comparing the RNA profiles of primary lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) isolated from the vasculature of normal tissue and from highly metastatic T-241/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C fibrosarcomas implanted in C57BL/6 mice. Our findings reveal significant differences in expression of some 792 genes (i.e., >or=2-fold up- or down-regulated, P <or= 0.05) that code for a variety of proteins including components of endothelial junctions, subendothelial matrix, and vessel growth/patterning. The tumor LEC profile, validated by immunohistochemical staining, is distinct from that of normal, inflammatory cytokine, or mitogen-activated LEC, characterized by elevated expression of such functionally significant molecules as the tight junction regulatory protein endothelial specific adhesion molecule (ESAM), the transforming growth factor-beta coreceptor Endoglin (CD105), the angiogenesis-associated leptin receptor, and the immunoinhibitory receptor CD200, and reduced expression of subendothelial matrix proteins including collagens, fibrillin, and biglycan. Moreover, we show similar induction of ESAM, Endoglin, and leptin receptor within tumor lymphatics in a series of human head and neck and colorectal carcinomas, and uncover a dramatic correlation between ESAM expression and nodal metastasis that identifies this marker as a possible prognostic indicator. These findings reveal a remarkable degree of phenotypic plasticity in cancer lymphatics and provide new insight into the processes of lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis.

Edwards J, Schulze E, Sabokbar A, Gordon-Andrews H, Jackson D, Athanasou NA. 2008. Absence of lymphatics at the bone-implant interface: implications for periprosthetic osteolysis. Acta Orthop, 79 (2), pp. 289-294. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Wear particles, found at the bone-implant interface surrounding a loose prosthesis, are commonly phagocytosed by macrophages. Wear particles and wear particle-containing macrophages are also found in regional lymph nodes draining arthroplasty tissues. The means by which wear particles are transported from arthroplasty tissues to lymph nodes is uncertain, as the presence or absence of lymphatic vessels in periprosthetic tissues has not been established. METHODS: We determined immunophenotypic expression of LYVE-1 and podoplanin, two highly specific lymphatic endothelial cell markers, in the hip arthroplasty pseudocapsule surrounding the false joint and the bone-implant interface of the femoral and acetabular pseu-domembrane. RESULTS: LYVE-1+/podoplanin+ lymphatic vessels were not identified in the pseudomembrane but were found in the pseudocapsule. Normal bone did not contain lymphatic vessels. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that the wear particles shed at the bone-implant interface are not transported to draining lymph nodes by lymphatics directly from the pseudomembrane, but via the pseudocapsule. The absence of a lymphatic clearance mechanism may contribute to accumulation of wear particles at the bone-implant interface and promote periprosthetic osteolysis through stimulation of osteoclast formation and activity.

Christou CM, Pearce AC, Watson AA, Mistry AR, Pollitt AY, Fenton-May AE, Johnson LA, Jackson DG, Watson SP, O'Callaghan CA. 2008. Renal cells activate the platelet receptor CLEC-2 through podoplanin. Biochem J, 411 (1), pp. 133-140. | Show Abstract | Read more

We have recently shown that the C-type lectin-like receptor, CLEC-2, is expressed on platelets and that it mediates powerful platelet aggregation by the snake venom toxin rhodocytin. In addition, we have provided indirect evidence for an endogenous ligand for CLEC-2 in renal cells expressing HIV-1. This putative ligand facilitates transmission of HIV through its incorporation into the viral envelope and binding to CLEC-2 on platelets. The aim of the present study was to identify the ligand on these cells which binds to CLEC-2 on platelets. Recombinant CLEC-2 exhibits specific binding to HEK-293T (human embryonic kidney) cells in which the HIV can be grown. Furthermore, HEK-293T cells activate both platelets and CLEC-2-transfected DT-40 B-cells. The transmembrane protein podoplanin was identified on HEK-293T cells and was demonstrated to mediate both binding of HEK-293T cells to CLEC-2 and HEK-293T cell activation of CLEC-2-transfected DT-40 B-cells. Podoplanin is expressed on renal cells (podocytes). Furthermore, a direct interaction between CLEC-2 and podoplanin was confirmed using surface plasmon resonance and was shown to be independent of glycosylation of CLEC-2. The interaction has an affinity of 24.5+/-3.7 microM. The present study identifies podoplanin as a ligand for CLEC-2 on renal cells.

Johnson LA, Jackson DG. 2008. Cell traffic and the lymphatic endothelium. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1131 (1), pp. 119-133. | Show Abstract | Read more

The principal immune function of the afferent lymphatics is to bear antigen and leukocytes from peripheral tissues to the draining lymph nodes. Recent research has shown that passage of leukocytes into the afferent lymphatic capillaries is far from an indolent process; rather it is carefully orchestrated by an array of adhesion molecules, as well as by chemokines and their receptors. Here we review the current knowledge of leukocyte trans-lymphatic endothelial migration and its role in the development of an immune response.

Edwards JR, Williams K, Kindblom LG, Meis-Kindblom JM, Hogendoorn PC, Hughes D, Forsyth RG, Jackson D, Athanasou NA. 2008. Lymphatics and bone. Hum Pathol, 39 (1), pp. 49-55. | Show Abstract | Read more

There is controversy regarding whether lymphatic vessels are present or absent in bone. Although lymphangiomas have been described in bone, lymphatic vessels have not been identified morphologically with certainty in any other benign or malignant bone tumors or in normal human bone. In this study, we determined by immunohistochemistry, using 2 specific lymphatic endothelial cell markers, LYVE-1 and podoplanin, whether lymphatics are present in normal bone and a wide range of primary and secondary bone neoplasms. In normal bone, LYVE-1+/podoplanin+ lymphatic vessels were not identified in cortical or cancellous bone but were seen in connective tissue overlying the periosteum. With the exception of lymphangioma, Gorham-Stout disease, and hemangioendothelioma, primary benign and malignant bone tumors (as well as secondary carcinomas) that were confined to bone did not contain lymphatic vessels. Primary and secondary bone tumors that had extended through the bone cortex contained LYVE-1+/podoplanin+ lymphatic vessels that seemed to extend for a short distance from surrounding soft tissues into the tumor. Three cases of osteosarcoma that had extended through the bone cortex and had lymph node metastases were all found to contain lymphatic vessels within the tumor. These results indicate that the lymphatic circulation is unlikely to play a role in bone fluid transport in normal bone and that lymphatic vessels are absent from most primary and secondary tumors confined to bone. These findings also suggest that lymphangiogenesis is not involved in the disease progression of most primary bone tumors and that carcinomatous metastasis to bone does not occur via lymphatics.

Cited:

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Scopus

Christou CM, Pearce AC, Watson AA, Mistry AR, Pollitt AY, Fenton-May AE, Johnson LA, Jackson DG, Watson SP, O'Callaghan CA. 2008. Renal cells activate the platelet receptor CLEC-2 through podoplanin Biochemical Journal, 411 (1), pp. 133-140. | Show Abstract | Read more

We have recently shown that the C-type lectin-like receptor, CLEC-2, is expressed on platelets and that it mediates powerful platelet aggregation by the snake venom toxin rhodocytin. In addition, we have provided indirect evidence for an endogenous ligand for CLEC-2 in renal cells expressing HIV-1. This putative ligand facilitates transmission of HIV through its incorporation into the viral envelope and binding to CLEC-2 on platelets. The aim of the present study was to identify the ligand on these cells which binds to CLEC-2 on platelets. Recombinant CLEC-2 exhibits specific binding to HEK-293T (human embryonic kidney) cells in which the HIV can be grown. Furthermore, HEK-293T cells activate both platelets and CLEC-2-transfected DT-40 B-cells. The transmembrane protein podoplanin was identified on HEK-293T cells and was demonstrated to mediate both binding of HEK-293T cells to CLEC-2 and HEK-293T cell activation of CLEC-2-transfected DT-40 B-cells. Podoplanin is expressed on renal cells (podocytes). Furthermore, a direct interaction between CLEC-2 and podoplanin was confirmed using surface plasmon resonance and was shown to be independent of glycosylation of CLEC-2. The interaction has an affinity of 24.5 ± 3.7 μM. The present study identifies podoplanin as a ligand for CLEC-2 on renal cells. © The Authors.

Johnson LA, Prevo R, Clasper S, Jackson DG. 2007. Inflammation-induced uptake and degradation of the lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1. J Biol Chem, 282 (46), pp. 33671-33680. | Show Abstract | Read more

The hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 is selectively expressed in the endothelium of lymphatic capillaries, where it has been proposed to function in hyaluronan clearance and hyaluronan-mediated leukocyte adhesion. However, recent studies suggest that hyaluronan homeostasis is unperturbed in LYVE-1(-/-) mice and that lymphatic adhesion/transmigration may be largely mediated by ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 rather than LYVE-1. Here we have explored the possibility that LYVE-1 functions during inflammation and report that the receptor is down-regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Using cultured primary lymphatic endothelial cells, we show that surface expression of LYVE-1 is rapidly and reversibly lost after exposure to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and TNFbeta via internalization and degradation of the receptor in lysosomes, coupled with a shutdown in gene expression. Curiously, internalization does not result in significant uptake of hyaluronan, a process that is largely insensitive to the novel LYVE-1 adhesion blocking monoclonal antibody 3A, and proceeds almost equally in resting and inflammation-activated lymphatic endothelial cells. Finally, we show that TNF can induce down-modulation of LYVE-1 in ex vivo murine dermal tissue explants and present evidence that the process occurs in vivo, in the context of murine allergen-induced skin inflammation. These findings suggest that LYVE-1 can function independently of hyaluronan and have implications for the use of LYVE-1 as a histological marker for lymphangiogenesis in human pathology.

Manzo A, Bugatti S, Caporali R, Prevo R, Jackson DG, Uguccioni M, Buckley CD, Montecucco C, Pitzalis C. 2007. CCL21 expression pattern of human secondary lymphoid organ stroma is conserved in inflammatory lesions with lymphoid neogenesis. Am J Pathol, 171 (5), pp. 1549-1562. | Show Abstract | Read more

CCL21 is a homeostatic lymphoid chemokine instrumental in the recruitment and organization of T cells and dendritic cells into lymphoid T areas. In human secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), CCL21 is produced by cells distributed throughout the T zone, whereas high endothelial venules (HEVs) lack CCL21 mRNA. A critical question remains whether the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue (ELT) in chronic inflammation recapitulates the features of SLOs. Thus, we systematically investigated in situ the cellular sources of CCL21 in SLOs and ELTs in several human diseases characterized by lymphoid neogenesis. By in situ hybridization and the use of combinatorial cell markers, we show that CCL21-producing vessels in inflamed tissues systematically display typical markers of lymphatic vessels, whereas, as in SLOs, ectopic HEVs do not synthesize detectable levels of CCL21. We also provide first-time evidence that a common pattern of CCL21 expression by CD45-negative myofibroblast-like cells localized in extra-HEV position and organized in a fibroblastic reticular network similarly characterizes human SLOs and organized ELTs. Altogether, our results demonstrate that in humans the pattern of CCL21 production in SLOs is maintained during inflammation and that the phenotypic and functional properties of stromal cells, found in SLO T-cell areas, are reproduced at ectopic sites.

Vainionpää N, Bützow R, Hukkanen M, Jackson DG, Pihlajaniemi T, Sakai LY, Virtanen I. 2007. Basement membrane protein distribution in LYVE-1-immunoreactive lymphatic vessels of normal tissues and ovarian carcinomas. Cell Tissue Res, 328 (2), pp. 317-328. | Show Abstract | Read more

The endothelial cells of blood vessels assemble basement membranes that play a role in vessel formation, maintenance and function, and in the migration of inflammatory cells. However, little is known about the distribution of basement membrane constituents in lymphatic vessels. We studied the distribution of basement membrane proteins in lymphatic vessels of normal human skin, digestive tract, ovary and, as an example of tumours with abundant lymphatics, ovarian carcinomas. Basement membrane proteins were localized by immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies, whereas lymphatic capillaries were detected with antibodies to the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, LYVE-1. In skin and ovary, fibrillar immunoreactivity for the laminin alpha4, beta1, beta2 and gamma1 chains, type IV and XVIII collagens and nidogen-1 was found in the basement membrane region of the lymphatic endothelium, whereas also heterogeneous reactivity for the laminin alpha5 chain was detected in the digestive tract. Among ovarian carcinomas, intratumoural lymphatic vessels were found especially in endometrioid carcinomas. In addition to the laminin alpha4, beta1, beta2 and gamma1 chains, type IV and XVIII collagens and nidogen-1, carcinoma lymphatics showed immunoreactivity for the laminin alpha5 chain and Lutheran glycoprotein, a receptor for the laminin alpha5 chain. In normal lymphatic capillaries, the presence of primarily alpha4 chain laminins may therefore compromise the formation of endothelial basement membrane, as these truncated laminins lack one of the three arms required for efficient network assembly. The localization of basement membrane proteins adjacent to lymphatic endothelia suggests a role for these proteins in lymphatic vessels. The distribution of the laminin alpha5 chain and Lutheran glycoprotein proposes a difference between normal and carcinoma lymphatic capillaries.

Banerji S, Wright AJ, Noble M, Mahoney DJ, Campbell ID, Day AJ, Jackson DG. 2007. Structures of the Cd44-hyaluronan complex provide insight into a fundamental carbohydrate-protein interaction. Nat Struct Mol Biol, 14 (3), pp. 234-239. | Show Abstract | Read more

Regulation of transient interactions between cells and the ubiquitous matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan is crucial to such fundamental processes as embryonic development and leukocyte homing. Cd44, the primary cell surface receptor for hyaluronan, binds ligand via a lectin-like fold termed the Link module, but only after appropriate functional activation. The molecular details of the Cd44-hyaluronan interaction and hence the structural basis for this activation are unknown. Here we present the first crystal structure of Cd44 complexed with hyaluronan. This reveals that the interaction with hyaluronan is dominated by shape and hydrogen-bonding complementarity and identifies two conformational forms of the receptor that differ in orientation of a crucial hyaluronan-binding residue (Arg45, equivalent to Arg41 in human CD44). Measurements by NMR indicate that the conformational transition can be induced by hyaluronan binding, providing further insight into possible mechanisms for regulation of Cd44.

Jackson DG. 2007. Lymphatic markers, tumour lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis. Cancer Treat Res, 135 pp. 39-53.

Gale NW, Prevo R, Espinosa J, Ferguson DJ, Dominguez MG, Yancopoulos GD, Thurston G, Jackson DG. 2007. Normal lymphatic development and function in mice deficient for the lymphatic hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1. Mol Cell Biol, 27 (2), pp. 595-604. | Show Abstract | Read more

The hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 is expressed abundantly on the surfaces of lymphatic vessels and lymph node sinus endothelial cells from early development, where it has been suggested to function both in cell adhesion/transmigration and as a scavenger for hyaluronan turnover. To investigate the physiological role(s) of LYVE-1, we generated mice in which the gene for the receptor was inactivated by replacement with a beta-galactosidase reporter. LYVE-1(-/-) mice displayed an apparently normal phenotype, with no obvious alteration in lymphatic vessel ultrastructure or function and no apparent change in secondary lymphoid tissue structure or cellularity. In addition, the levels of hyaluronan in tissue and blood were unchanged. LYVE-1(-/-) mice also displayed normal trafficking of cutaneous CD11c(+) dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics and normal resolution of oxazolone-induced skin inflammation. Finally, LYVE-1(-/-) mice supported normal growth of transplanted B16F10 melanomas and Lewis lung carcinomas. These results indicate that LYVE-1 is not obligatory for normal lymphatic development and function and suggest either the existence of compensatory receptors or a role more specific than that previously envisaged.

Qian CN, Berghuis B, Tsarfaty G, Bruch M, Kort EJ, Ditlev J, Tsarfaty I, Hudson E, Jackson DG, Petillo D et al. 2006. Preparing the "soil": the primary tumor induces vasculature reorganization in the sentinel lymph node before the arrival of metastatic cancer cells. Cancer Res, 66 (21), pp. 10365-10376. | Show Abstract | Read more

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis is the first step in the spreading of cancer in many malignancies. Tumor-reactive lymphadenopathy in SLNs has been observed for decades, but alterations of the lymphatic channels and vasculature in these nodes before the arrival of metastatic tumor cells remain unexplored. Using animal models, we show here that, before the establishment of metastasis in the SLN, there are reorganizations of the lymphatic channels and the vasculature. The node becomes a functional blood vessel-enriched and lymph vessel/sinus-enriched organ before metastasis. The enlargement of the lymph sinuses is correlated with the primary tumor weight. The newly emerged functional blood vessels develop from high endothelial venules (HEV), in which the proliferation rate of the endothelial cells is also significantly increased. Similar alterations of the HEVs are also characterized in the axillary lymph nodes from human breast cancer patients without the evidence of metastasis. These findings support the hypothesis that modification of the microenvironment for a secondary tumor (i.e., vasculature reorganization in the SLN) can be initiated by a primary tumor before and independent of the physical presence of metastatic cancer cells.

Trojan L, Rensch F, Voss M, Grobholz R, Weiss C, Jackson DG, Alken P, Michel MS. 2006. The role of the lymphatic system and its specific growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor C, for lymphogenic metastasis in prostate cancer. BJU Int, 98 (4), pp. 903-906. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: To compare prostate carcinoma, with and with no lymph node metastasis, to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissue for lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and the expression of the lymph-endothelial specific growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), to determine their role in lymphogenic metastasis. PATIENTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lymphatic vessels were stained using lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 and assessed in standard areas. The expression of VEGF-C was assessed by the number of positive epithelial cells. The data were compared with the clinical staging. RESULTS: The lowest LVD was found in tumorous areas as opposed to periphery and nontumorous tissue (P = 0.007; P < 0.001). The highest LVD was in BPH tissue (P < 0.001). There was no correlation with clinical staging. There was more VEGF-C staining in pN1 than in pN0 and in BPH specimens (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: LVD is not a prognostic variable for the process of lymphogenic metastasis in prostate cancer. VEGF-C is up-regulated in prostate cancer and its correlation with lymph node status suggests a role for the development of lymph node metastasis, e.g. via an increased permeability of lymphatic vessels.

Sundar SS, Zhang H, Brown P, Manek S, Han C, Kaur K, Charnock MF, Jackson D, Ganesan TS. 2006. Role of lymphangiogenesis in epithelial ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer, 94 (11), pp. 1650-1657. | Show Abstract | Read more

We investigated the significance of lymphatic count, vascular count and angiogenic growth factors using immunohistochemistry in 108 tumour specimens of epithelial ovarian cancer with antibodies to lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) in epithelial ovarian cancer to understand the pathogenesis of metastasis in ovarian cancer. The effect of prognostic variables on progression-free and overall survival was assessed. On multivariate analysis, bulky residual disease after surgery was the best prognostic indicator (P<0.001) for progression-free and overall survival (P<0.001). Lymphatic count was statistically significant as a prognostic factor for progression-free (P=0.05) and overall survival (P=0.04). However, lymphatic count did not impact on survival curves. No correlation was found between lymphatic count and age, histological subtype, FIGO stage or residual disease. Vascular count, VEGF or TP expressions were not significant in either analysis. Lymphatic spread may be significant in aiding metastases in ovarian cancer but requires other biological factors to act in conjunction, as it does not have clearcut prognostic significance. Dissemination of ovarian cancer does not occur primarily through vascular or lymphatic routes but may occur through direct intraperitoneal spread of disease.

Cao RH, Bjorndahl MA, Religa P, Clasper S, Garvin S, Gaiter D, Meister B, Ikomi F, Tritsoris K, Dissing S et al. 2006. PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis (vol 6, pg 333, 2004) CANCER CELL, 9 (3), pp. 239-239. | Read more

Johnson LA, Clasper S, Holt AP, Lalor PF, Baban D, Jackson DG. 2006. An inflammation-induced mechanism for leukocyte transmigration across lymphatic vessel endothelium. J Exp Med, 203 (12), pp. 2763-2777. | Show Abstract | Read more

The exit of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes from inflamed skin to afferent lymph is vital for the initiation and maintenance of dermal immune responses. How such an exit is achieved and how cells transmigrate the distinct endothelium of lymphatic vessels are unknown. We show that inflammatory cytokines trigger activation of dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), leading to expression of the key leukocyte adhesion receptors intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, as well as a discrete panel of chemokines and other potential regulators of leukocyte transmigration. Furthermore, we show that both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are induced in the dermal lymphatic vessels of mice exposed to skin contact hypersensitivity where they mediate lymph node trafficking of dendritic cells (DCs) via afferent lymphatics. Lastly, we show that tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates both DC adhesion and transmigration of dermal LEC monolayers in vitro and that the process is efficiently inhibited by ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion-blocking monoclonal antibodies. These results reveal a CAM-mediated mechanism for recruiting leukocytes to the lymph nodes in inflammation and highlight the process of lymphatic transmigration as a potential new target for antiinflammatory therapy.

Van der Auwera I, Cao Y, Tille JC, Pepper MS, Jackson DG, Fox SB, Harris AL, Dirix LY, Vermeulen PB. 2006. First international consensus on the methodology of lymphangiogenesis quantification in solid human tumours. Br J Cancer, 95 (12), pp. 1611-1625. | Show Abstract | Read more

The lymphatic system is the primary pathway of metastasis for most human cancers. Recent research efforts in studying lymphangiogenesis have suggested the existence of a relationship between lymphatic vessel density and patient survival. However, current methodology of lymphangiogenesis quantification is still characterised by high intra- and interobserver variability. For the amount of lymphatic vessels in a tumour to be a clinically useful parameter, a reliable quantification technique needs to be developed. With this consensus report, we therefore would like to initiate discussion on the standardisation of the immunohistochemical method for lymphangiogenesis assessment.

Witte MH, Jones K, Wilting J, Dictor M, Selg M, McHale N, Gershenwald JE, Jackson DG. 2006. Structure function relationships in the lymphatic system and implications for cancer biology. Cancer Metastasis Rev, 25 (2), pp. 159-184. | Show Abstract | Read more

The lymphatic system, composed of lymphatic vessels, lymph, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes, is a distinctive vasculature (discontinuous basement membrane, open endothelial junctions, anchoring filaments, valves, and intrinsic contractility), different yet similar to the blood vasculature; an integral component of the plasma-tissue fluid-lymph circulation (the "blood-lymph loop"); and the center of the immunoregulatory network. Lymphatics are involved in diverse developmental, growth, repair, and pathologic processes both analogous to and distinct from those affecting the blood vasculature. Interference with the blood-lymph loop produces swelling [an imbalance between lymph formation (regulated by Starling's law of transcapillary fluid exchange) and lymph absorption], scarring, nutritional and immunodysregulatory disorders, as well as disturbances in lymph(hem)angiogenesis (lymphedema-angiodysplasia syndromes). The lymphatic system is also the stage on which key events during cancer development and progression are played out, and historically, also forms the basis for current evaluation, prognostication, and/or both operative and non-operative treatment of most cancers. Recent advances in molecular lymphology (e.g., discovery of lymphatic growth factors, endothelial receptors, transcription factors, genes, and highly specific immunohistochemical markers) and growing interest in lymphangiogenesis, combined with fresh insights and refined tools in clinical lymphology, including non-invasive lymphatic imaging, are opening up a window for translation to the clinical arena. Therefore, in cancer biology, attention to the multifaceted structure-function relationships within this vast, relatively unexplored system is long overdue.

Chang YC, Chan YH, Jackson DG, Hsieh SL. 2006. The glycosaminoglycan-binding domain of decoy receptor 3 is essential for induction of monocyte adhesion. J Immunol, 176 (1), pp. 173-180. | Show Abstract

Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a soluble receptor for Fas ligand, LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxins shows inducible expression and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes), and TNF-like molecule 1A, is highly expressed in cancer cells and in tissues affected by autoimmune disease. DcR3.Fc has been shown to stimulate cell adhesion and to modulate cell activation and differentiation by triggering multiple signaling cascades that are independent of its three known ligands. In this study we found that DcR3.Fc-induced cell adhesion was inhibited by heparin and heparan sulfate, and that DcR3.Fc was unable to bind Chinese hamster ovary K1 mutants defective in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis. Furthermore, the negatively charged, sulfated GAGs of cell surface proteoglycans, but not their core proteins, were identified as the binding sites for DcR3.Fc. A potential GAG-binding site was found in the C-terminal region of DcR3, and the mutation of three basic residues, i.e., K256, R258, and R259, to alanines abolished its ability to trigger cell adhesion. Moreover, a fusion protein comprising the GAG-binding region of DcR3 with an Fc fragment (DcR3_HBD.Fc) has the same effect as DcR3.Fc in activating protein kinase C and inducing cell adhesion. Compared with wild-type THP-1 cells, cell adhesion induced by DcR3.Fc was significantly reduced in both CD44v3 and syndecan-2 knockdown THP-1 cells. Therefore, we propose a model in which DcR3.Fc may bind to and cross-link proteoglycans to induce monocyte adhesion.

Cursiefen C, Maruyama K, Jackson DG, Streilein JW, Kruse FE. 2006. Time course of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis after brief corneal inflammation. Cornea, 25 (4), pp. 443-447. | Show Abstract | Read more

PURPOSE: To study the time course of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the cornea after a short inflammatory insult. This might be helpful for the timing of corneal transplantation in high-risk eyes. METHODS: The mouse model of suture-induced inflammatory corneal neovascularization was used. After placement of 3 interrupted 11-0 sutures into the corneal stroma of BALB/c mice (left in place for 14 days), corneas were excised 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months after surgery. Hem- and lymphangiogenesis were evaluated using double immunohistochemistry of corneas with CD31/PECAM1 as panendothelial and LYVE-1 as lymphatic endothelial marker. RESULTS: Both blood and lymphatic vessels grew into the cornea as early as day 2 after suture placement. The outgrowth was initially parallel. Hem- and lymphangiogenesis peaked around day 14. Thereafter, both vessel types started to regress. Regression of lymphatic vessels started earlier and was more pronounced than that of blood vessels. Whereas at 6 and 8 months (partly) perfused CD31+++/LYVE-1(-) blood vessels and (nonperfused) ghost vessels could still be observed, there were no CD31+/LYVE-1+++ lymphatic vessels detectable beyond 6 months after this short inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: After a temporary inflammatory insult to the cornea, there is initially parallel outgrowth of both blood and lymphatic vessels. But thereafter, lymphatic vessels regress earlier than blood vessels and are completely regressed by 6 months. Earlier regression of pathologic corneal lymph versus blood vessels suggests that corneal graft survival in high-risk eyes might best be delayed for a prolonged interval following an inflammatory insult.

Audet N, Beasley NJ, MacMillan C, Jackson DG, Gullane PJ, Kamel-Reid S. 2005. Lymphatic vessel density, nodal metastases, and prognosis in patients with head and neck cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 131 (12), pp. 1065-1070. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between intratumoral lymphatic vessel density and clinical and pathological variables in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Archived paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and anti-LYVE-1 antibody, a highly specific marker for lymphatic endothelium. Tumor grade, infiltrating margin, inflammatory infiltrate, and percentage of tumor necrosis were noted and lymphatic vessel density measured using Chalkley point counting. SETTING: Tertiary care center at a university hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 168 previously untreated patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (73, larynx; 62, oropharynx; and 33, hypopharynx) treated with primary radiation (with or without planned neck dissection) and salvage surgery from 1992 to 1999. INTERVENTIONS: Measurement of intratumoral lymphatic vessel density in pretreatment tissue biopsy specimen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disease-free and disease-specific survival, tumor occurrence, and nodal status. RESULTS: In patients with laryngeal carcinoma there was a significant relationship between the presence of intratumoral lymphatics and nodal metastases at presentation (P = .02) and poorly differentiated tumor grade (P = .02). Patients with high lymphatic vessel density also had a significantly worse disease-specific survival (P = .03). However, this difference was not significant with multivariate analysis. No significant relationship existed between the presence of intratumoral lymphatics and any of the clinical or pathological variables in oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: In this patient sample, the development of intratumoral lymphatics in laryngeal carcinoma, but not in oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma, is associated with a spread of the tumor to regional lymph nodes. Detecting tumor lymphatic vessel proliferation is another step in the understanding of tumor biology, and the targeting of lymphatic growth may be of potential therapeutic benefit in selected patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Björndahl M, Cao R, Nissen LJ, Clasper S, Johnson LA, Xue Y, Zhou Z, Jackson D, Hansen AJ, Cao Y. 2005. Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 induce lymphangiogenesis in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 102 (43), pp. 15593-15598. | Show Abstract | Read more

Lymphangiogenesis is an important process that contributes to the spread of cancer. Here we show that insulin-like growth factors 1 (IGF-1) and 2 (IGF-2) induce lymphangiogenesis in vivo. In a mouse cornea assay, IGF-1 and IGF-2 induce lymphangiogenesis as detected with LYVE-1, a specific marker for lymphatic endothelium. Interestingly, IGF-1-induced lymphangiogenesis could not be blocked by a soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3, suggesting that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3-signaling pathway is not required for IGF-induced lymphangiogenesis. In vitro, IGF-1 and IGF-2 significantly stimulated proliferation and migration of primary lymphatic endothelial cells. IGF-1 and IGF-2 induced phosphorylation of intracellular signaling components, such as Akt, Src, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in lymphatic endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and Affymetrix GeneChip microarray analysis showed that the receptors for IGFs are present in lymphatic endothelium. Together, our findings suggest that IGFs might act as direct lymphangiogenic factors, although any indirect roles in the induction of lymphangiogenesis cannot be excluded. Because members of the IGF ligand and receptor families are widely expressed in various types of solid tumors, our findings suggest that these factors are likely to contribute to lymphatic metastasis.

Von Marschall Z, Scholz A, Stacker SA, Achen MG, Jackson DG, Alves F, Schirner M, Haberey M, Thierauch KH, Wiedenmann B, Rosewicz S. 2005. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D induces lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in models of ductal pancreatic cancer. Int J Oncol, 27 (3), pp. 669-679. | Show Abstract

The presence of lymphatic metastases is a strong indicator for poor prognosis in patients with ductal pancreatic cancer. In order to better understand the mechanisms controlling lymphatic growth and lymph node metastasis in human ductal pancreatic cancer, we analyzed the expression pattern of the vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D), its receptor VEGF-receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) and the lymphatic endothelium-specific hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 in a panel of 19 primary human ductal pancreatic tumors and 10 normal pancreas specimens. We further addressed the biological function of VEGF-D for induction of lymphatic metastasis in a nude mouse xenograft model using two human ductal pancreatic cancer cell lines with overexpression of VEGF-D. Compared to normal human pancreas, pancreatic cancer tissue showed overexpression of VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 in conjunction with a high lymphatic vascularization as determined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Tumors derived from VEGF-D-overexpressing cells had a higher microvessel density compared to their mock-controls, as determined based on CD31 immunohistochemistry. Importantly, these tumors also revealed a significant induction of intra- and peritumoral lymphatics, as judged from immunohistochemical detection of LYVE-1 expression. This was associated with a significant increase in lymphatic vessel invasion by tumor cells and an increased rate of lymphatic metastases, as indicated by pan-cytokeratin reactive cells in lymph nodes. Our results suggest that VEGF-D plays a pivotal role in stimulating lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in human ductal pancreatic cancer, and therefore represents a novel therapeutic target for this devastating disease.

Cursiefen C, Ikeda S, Nishina PM, Smith RS, Ikeda A, Jackson D, Mo JS, Chen L, Dana MR, Pytowski B et al. 2005. Spontaneous corneal hem- and lymphangiogenesis in mice with destrin-mutation depend on VEGFR3 signaling. Am J Pathol, 166 (5), pp. 1367-1377. | Show Abstract | Read more

Lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels, is important for tumor metastasis and induction of immunity to peripheral antigens including organ transplants. We herein describe a novel mouse model of spontaneous, secondary lymphangiogenesis in the normally avascular cornea. corn1 mice, which suffer from a deletion in the gene encoding the cytoskeletal protein destrin, develop hemangiogenesis as well as spontaneous outgrowth of LYVE-1+++/CD31+ lymphatic vessels into the cornea starting at age 4 weeks. Corneal lymphangiogenesis is delayed in onset, is less intense, and regresses earlier compared with hemangiogenesis. Moreover, the lymphangiogenesis is preceded only by a mild recruitment of CD45+ inflammatory cells into the cornea. In contrast to mice with inflammation-induced hem- and lymphangiogenesis, corn1 mice do not develop breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier. Finally, in this novel mouse model, a blocking anti-VEGFR3 antibody significantly inhibited not only lymph- but also hemangiogenesis. In summary, destrin deletion has differential effects on spontaneous hem- and lymphangiogenesis in the normally avascular cornea and represents a novel mouse model to study the mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis and to test the antihem- and antilymphangiogenic properties of known or new antiangiogenic agents.

Schacht V, Dadras SS, Johnson LA, Jackson DG, Hong YK, Detmar M. 2005. Up-regulation of the lymphatic marker podoplanin, a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein, in human squamous cell carcinomas and germ cell tumors. Am J Pathol, 166 (3), pp. 913-921. | Show Abstract | Read more

The mucin-type glycoprotein podoplanin is specifically expressed by lymphatic but not blood vascular endothelial cells in culture and in tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis, and podoplanin deficiency results in congenital lymphedema and impaired lymphatic vascular patterning. However, research into the biological importance of podoplanin has been hampered by the lack of a generally available antibody against the human protein, and its expression in normal tissues and in human malignancies has remained unclear. We generated a human podoplanin-Fc fusion protein and found that the commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody D2-40 specifically recognized human podoplanin, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analyses. We found that, in addition to lymphatic endothelium, podoplanin was also expressed by peritoneal mesothelial cells, osteocytes, glandular myoepithelial cells, ependymal cells, and by stromal reticular cells and follicular dendritic cells of lymphoid organs. These findings were confirmed in normal mouse tissues with anti-podoplanin antibody 8.1.1. Podoplanin was also strongly expressed by granulosa cells in normal ovarian follicles, and by ovarian dysgerminomas and granulosa cell tumors. Although podoplanin was primarily absent from normal human epidermis, its expression was strongly induced in 22 of 28 squamous cell carcinomas studied. These findings suggest a potential role of podoplanin in tumor progression, and they also identify the first commercially available antibody for the specific staining of a defined lymphatic marker in archival human tissue sections, thereby enabling more widespread studies of tumor lymphangiogenesis in human cancers.

Pathak AP, Artemov D, Ward BD, Jackson DG, Neeman M, Bhujwalla ZM. 2005. Characterizing extravascular fluid transport of macromolecules in the tumor interstitium by magnetic resonance imaging. Cancer Res, 65 (4), pp. 1425-1432. | Show Abstract | Read more

Noninvasive imaging techniques to image and characterize delivery and transport of macromolecules through the extracellular matrix (ECM) and supporting stroma of a tumor are necessary to develop treatments that alter the porosity and integrity of the ECM for improved delivery of therapeutic agents and to understand factors which influence and control delivery, movement, and clearance of macromolecules. In this study, a noninvasive imaging technique was developed to characterize the delivery as well as interstitial transport of a macromolecular agent, albumin-GdDTPA, in the MCF-7 human breast cancer model in vivo, using magnetic resonance imaging. The transport parameters derived included vascular volume, permeability surface area product, macromolecular fluid exudate volume, and drainage and pooling rates. Immunohistochemical staining for the lymphatic endothelial marker LYVE-1 was done to determine the contribution of lymphatics to the macromolecular drainage. Distinct pooling and draining regions were detected in the tumors using magnetic resonance imaging. A few lymphatic vessels positively stained for LYVE-1 were also detected although these were primarily collapsed and tenuous suggesting that lymphatic drainage played a minimal role, and that the bulk of drainage was due to convective transport through the ECM in this tumor model.

Burman A, Haworth O, Hardie DL, Amft EN, Siewert C, Jackson DG, Salmon M, Buckley CD. 2005. A chemokine-dependent stromal induction mechanism for aberrant lymphocyte accumulation and compromised lymphatic return in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol, 174 (3), pp. 1693-1700. | Show Abstract

According to the current model for tissue-specific homing, specificity is conferred by the selective recruitment of lymphocyte populations from peripheral blood, based on their expression of chemokine and adhesion receptors (endothelial selection). In this study, we provide evidence for an alternative stromal induction mechanism that operates in chronic inflammation. We show that the human rheumatoid synovial microenvironment directly induces functional inflammatory (CCR5 and CXCR3) and constitutive (CCR7 and CXCR4) chemokine receptors on infiltrating CD4(+) T cells. Expression of the corresponding inflammatory chemokine ligands (CCL5 and CXCL11) was confined to stromal areas in the synovium. However, expression of the constitutive ligands (CCL19 and CXCL12) was inappropriately high on both vascular and lymphatic endothelium, suggesting that the vascular to lymphatic chemokine gradient involved in lymphatic recirculation becomes subverted in the rheumatoid synovium. These results challenge the view that leukocyte trafficking is regulated solely by selective recruitment of pre-existing chemokine receptor-positive cells from peripheral blood, by providing an alternative explanation based on aberrant lymphocyte retention and compromised lymphatic return.

Kato T, Prevo R, Steers G, Roberts H, Leek RD, Kimura T, Kameoka S, Nishikawa T, Kobayashi M, Jackson DG et al. 2005. A quantitative analysis of lymphatic vessels in human breast cancer, based on LYVE-1 immunoreactivity. Br J Cancer, 93 (10), pp. 1168-1174. | Show Abstract | Read more

This study was undertaken to determine the highly sensitive method for detecting tumour lymphatic vessels in all the fields of each slide (LV), lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) and lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) and to compare them with other prognostic parameters using immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal (PCAB) and monoclonal antibodies (MCAB) to the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1), and the pan-endothelial marker factor VIII in a series of 67 human breast cancers. In all LYVE-1-stained sections, LV (some of which contained red blood cells) were frequently found localised in extralobular stroma, dermis, connective tissue stroma and adjacent to artery and vein, but were rare within the intralobular stroma or the tumour body (3/67 cases) or areas of widespread invasion. In contrast small blood vessels were observed in intra- and extralobular stroma in the factor VIII-stained sections. Quantitation of vessel numbers revealed that LYVE-1/PCAB detected a significantly larger number of LV than either H&E or LYVE-1/MCAB (P<0.0001). LYVE-1/PCAB detected LVI in 25/67 cases (37.3%) and their presence was significantly associated with both lymph node metastasis (chi(2)=4.698, P=0.0248) and unfavourable overall survival (OS) (P=0.0453), while not relapse- free survival (RFS) (P=0.2948). LMVD had no influence for RFS and OS (P=0.4879, P=0.1463, respectively). Our study demonstrates that immunohistochemistry with LYVE-1/PCAB is a highly sensitive method for detecting tumour LV/LVI in breast cancer and LVI is a useful prognostic indicator for lymphatic tumour dissemination.

Maruyama K, Ii M, Cursiefen C, Jackson DG, Keino H, Tomita M, Van Rooijen N, Takenaka H, D'Amore PA, Stein-Streilein J et al. 2005. Inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis in the cornea arises from CD11b-positive macrophages. J Clin Invest, 115 (9), pp. 2363-2372. | Show Abstract | Read more

In the inflamed cornea, there is a parallel outgrowth of blood and lymphatic vessels into the normally avascular cornea. We tested whether adaptive and/or innate immune cells were actively involved in the genesis of new lymphatic vessels. Our results indicate that innate immune cells (CD11b+ macrophages, but not CD11c+ dendritic cells) physically contributed to lymphangiogenesis under pathological conditions and that bone marrow-derived CD11b+ macrophages expressed lymphatic endothelial markers such as LYVE-1 and Prox-1 under inflamed conditions in the corneal stromata of mice. Furthermore, blood vascular endothelial cells that expressed the Tie2 promoter did not contribute to newly formed lymphatic vessels under inflamed conditions. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that CD11b+ macrophages alone were capable of forming tube-like structures that expressed markers of lymphatic endothelium such as LYVE-1 and podoplanin. The novel finding that CD11b+ macrophages are critical for the development of inflammation-dependent lymphangiogenesis in the eye suggests a new mechanism of lymphangiogenesis.

Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, Sivridis E, Simopoulos C, Gatter KC, Harris AL, Jackson DG. 2005. LYVE-1 immunohistochemical assessment of lymphangiogenesis in endometrial and lung cancer. J Clin Pathol, 58 (2), pp. 202-206. | Show Abstract | Read more

AIMS/METHODS: Normal and malignant pulmonary and endometrial tissues were analysed for lymphatic vessels to assess the process of lymphangiogenesis and its role at these sites, using specific immunostaining for LYVE-1 and the panendothelial marker CD31. RESULTS: Lymphatics were clearly demonstrated in some normal tissues (myometrium, bronchial submucosa, and intestinal submucosa), but not in others (endometrium and alveolar tissue). LYVE-1 positive lymphatic vessels were detected at the tumour periphery of endometrial and lung carcinomas, but not within the main tumour mass. Double staining for LYVE-1 and the MIB1 proliferation marker revealed a higher proliferation index in lymphatic endothelial cells at the invading front of endometrial carcinomas, compared with myometrial areas distal to the tumour. Lung and endometrial carcinomas did not have an intratumorous lymphatic network. CONCLUSIONS: Although lymphangiogenesis may occur at the invading tumour front, incorporated lymphatics do not survive. Therefore, the dissemination of cancer cells through the lymphatics may occur by invasion of peripheral cancer cells into the adjacent normal lymphatics, or through shunts eventually produced at the invading tumour front as a consequence of active angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.

Baluk P, Tammela T, Ator E, Lyubynska N, Achen MG, Hicklin DJ, Jeltsch M, Petrova TV, Pytowski B, Stacker SA et al. 2005. Pathogenesis of persistent lymphatic vessel hyperplasia in chronic airway inflammation. J Clin Invest, 115 (2), pp. 247-257. | Show Abstract | Read more

Edema occurs in asthma and other inflammatory diseases when the rate of plasma leakage from blood vessels exceeds the drainage through lymphatic vessels and other routes. It is unclear to what extent lymphatic vessels grow to compensate for increased leakage during inflammation and what drives the lymphangiogenesis that does occur. We addressed these issues in mouse models of (a) chronic respiratory tract infection with Mycoplasma pulmonis and (b) adenoviral transduction of airway epithelium with VEGF family growth factors. Blood vessel remodeling and lymphangiogenesis were both robust in infected airways. Inhibition of VEGFR-3 signaling completely prevented the growth of lymphatic vessels but not blood vessels. Lack of lymphatic growth exaggerated mucosal edema and reduced the hypertrophy of draining lymph nodes. Airway dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells expressed the VEGFR-3 ligands VEGF-C or VEGF-D. Adenoviral delivery of either VEGF-C or VEGF-D evoked lymphangiogenesis without angiogenesis, whereas adenoviral VEGF had the opposite effect. After antibiotic treatment of the infection, inflammation and remodeling of blood vessels quickly subsided, but lymphatic vessels persisted. Together, these findings suggest that when lymphangiogenesis is impaired, airway inflammation may lead to bronchial lymphedema and exaggerated airflow obstruction. Correction of defective lymphangiogenesis may benefit the treatment of asthma and other inflammatory airway diseases.

Prevo R, Banerji S, Ni J, Jackson DG. 2004. Rapid plasma membrane-endosomal trafficking of the lymph node sinus and high endothelial venule scavenger receptor/homing receptor stabilin-1 (FEEL-1/CLEVER-1). J Biol Chem, 279 (50), pp. 52580-52592. | Show Abstract | Read more

The sinusoidal endothelia of liver, spleen, and lymph node are major sites for uptake and recycling of waste macromolecules through promiscuous binding to a disparate family of scavenger receptors. Among the most complex is stabilin-1, a large multidomain protein containing tandem fasciclin domains, epidermal growth factor-like repeats, and a C-type lectin-like hyaluronan-binding Link module, which functions as an endocytic receptor for acetylated low density lipoprotein and advanced glycation end products. Intriguingly, stabilin-1 has also been reported to mediate both homing of leukocytes across lymph node high endothelial venules and adhesion of metastatic tumor cells to peritumoral lymphatic vessels. Currently, however, it is not clear how stabilin-1 mediates these distinct functions. To address the issue, we have investigated the tissue and subcellular localization of stabilin-1 in detail and assessed the functional status of its Link module. We show that stabilin-1 is almost entirely intracellular in lymph node high endothelial venules, lymphatic sinus endothelium, and cultured endothelial cells but that a finite population, detectable only by fluorescent antibody or fluorescein-labeled (Fl)-acetylated low density lipoprotein uptake, cycles rapidly between the plasma membrane and EEA-1+ve (early endosome antigen 1) early endosomes. In addition, we show using full-length stabilin-1 cDNA and a stabilin-1/CD44 chimera in HeLa cells that intracellular targeting is influenced by the transmembrane domain/cytoplasmic tail, which contains a putative dileucine (DXXLL) Golgi to endosomal sorting signal. Finally, we provide evidence that the stabilin-1 Link domain binds neither hyaluronan nor other glycosaminoglycans. These properties support a role for stabilin-1 as a rapidly recycling scavenger receptor and argue against a role in cell adhesion or lymphocyte homing.

Saban MR, Mémet S, Jackson DG, Ash J, Roig AA, Israël A, Saban R. 2004. Visualization of lymphatic vessels through NF-kappaB activity. Blood, 104 (10), pp. 3228-3230. | Show Abstract | Read more

The molecular biology of lymphatics is only rudimentary owing to the long-standing absence of specific markers, and scanty is the information regarding bladder lymphatic vessels. By using mice with a reporter gene for nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity (kappaB-lacZ) in combination with immunohistochemical staining with a specific lymphatic marker (LYVE-1), we show, for the first time, that NF-kappaB is constitutively active in lymphatic endothelium in the urinary bladder, uterus, intestine, heart, and airways. Tie2-lacZ mice confirmed that the structures observed in kappaB-lacZ mice were not blood vessels. In addition, acute instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) into the kappaB-lacZ mouse bladder revealed the capacity of this transgenic in reporting inducible NF-kappaB activity. Our findings demonstrate an overriding constitutive NF-kappaB activity in the lymphatic system. They also provide a working model for detecting lymphatic vessels and evoke testable hypotheses regarding the role of lymphatic vessels in health and disease.

Bono P, Wasenius VM, Heikkilä P, Lundin J, Jackson DG, Joensuu H. 2004. High LYVE-1-positive lymphatic vessel numbers are associated with poor outcome in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res, 10 (21), pp. 7144-7149. | Show Abstract | Read more

PURPOSE: The clinical significance of intratumoral or peritumoral lymph vessel density is not known. LYVE-1, a lymphatic endothelium-specific hyaluronan receptor, is a novel lymphatic vessel marker that is expressed on lymph vessel endothelial cells of both normal and neoplastic tissues. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated expression of LYVE-1 by immunohistochemistry in 180 unilateral, invasive ductal breast carcinomas and assessed the presence and density of lymph vessels within the tumor and at the tumor periphery. RESULTS: A minority (12%) of breast carcinomas had intratumoral lymph vessels, whereas peritumoral lymph vessels were identified in almost all cases (94%). No substantial association was found between the number of LYVE-1-positive vessels and the number of CD31 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3-positive vessels, or vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression. The number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes increased in parallel with increasing lymph vessel counts (P = 0.033). A higher than the median lymph vessel count at the tumor periphery was significantly associated with unfavorable distant disease-free survival and overall survival. Women with high peritumoral lymph vessel density had only 58% (95% confidence interval, 46-70%) 5-year distant disease-free survival as compared with 74% (66-83%) among those with a low peritumoral lymph vessel density (P = 0.0088). In contrast, the presence of intratumoral lymph vessels was associated with neither axillary nodal status nor survival. Lymph vessel density was not an independent prognostic factor in a multivariate survival analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A high peritumoral lymph vessel density is associated with a poor outcome in ductal breast cancer.

Cao R, Björndahl MA, Religa P, Clasper S, Garvin S, Galter D, Meister B, Ikomi F, Tritsaris K, Dissing S et al. 2004. PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis. Cancer Cell, 6 (4), pp. 333-345. | Show Abstract | Read more

Cancer metastases are commonly found in the lymphatic system. Like tumor blood angiogenesis, stimulation of tumor lymphangiogenesis may require the interplay of several tumor-derived growth factors. Here we report that members of the PDGF family act as lymphangiogenic factors. In vitro, PDGF-BB stimulated MAP kinase activity and cell motility of isolated lymphatic endothelial cells. In vivo, PDGF-BB potently induced growth of lymphatic vessels. Expression of PDGF-BB in murine fibrosarcoma cells induced tumor lymphangiogenesis, leading to enhanced metastasis in lymph nodes. These data demonstrate that PDGF-BB is an important growth factor contributing to lymphatic metastasis. Thus, blockage of PDGF-induced lymphangiogenesis may provide a novel approach for prevention and treatment of lymphatic metastasis.

Cupedo T, Vondenhoff MF, Heeregrave EJ, De Weerd AE, Jansen W, Jackson DG, Kraal G, Mebius RE. 2004. Presumptive lymph node organizers are differentially represented in developing mesenteric and peripheral nodes. J Immunol, 173 (5), pp. 2968-2975. | Show Abstract

During murine embryogenesis, the formation of Peyer's patches (PPs) is initiated by CD45(+)CD4(+)CD3(-) lymphoid tissue inducers that trigger adhesion molecule expression and specific chemokine production from an organizing stromal cell population through ligation of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor. However, the steps involved in the development of lymph nodes (LNs) are less clear than those of PPs, and the characteristics of the organizing cells within the LN anlagen have yet to be documented. In this study, we show for the first time that the early anlage is bordered by an endothelial layer that retains a mixed lymphatic and blood vascular phenotype up to embryonic day 16.5. This in turn encompasses CD45(+)CD4(+)CD3(-) cells interspersed with ICAM-1/VCAM-1/mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, lymphotoxin-beta receptor-positive, chemokine-producing cells analogous to the organizing population previously observed in PPs. Moreover, these LN organizers also express the TNF family member, TRANCE. Lastly, we show that the ICAM-1/VCAM-1/mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 cells present in peripheral and mesenteric LN form two discrete populations expressing either intermediate or high levels of these adhesion molecules but that the former population is specifically reduced in PLN. These findings provide a possible explanation for the well-known differences in developmental requirements for nodes at peripheral or mesenteric locations.

Cursiefen C, Cao J, Chen L, Liu Y, Maruyama K, Jackson D, Kruse FE, Wiegand SJ, Dana MR, Streilein JW. 2004. Inhibition of hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis after normal-risk corneal transplantation by neutralizing VEGF promotes graft survival. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 45 (8), pp. 2666-2673. | Show Abstract | Read more

PURPOSE: To evaluate the occurrence and time course of hem- and lymphangiogenesis after normal-risk corneal transplantation in the mouse model and to test whether pharmacologic strategies inhibiting both processes improve long-term graft survival. METHODS: Normal-risk allogeneic (C57BL/6 to BALB/c) and syngeneic (BALB/c to BALB/c) corneal transplantations were performed and occurrence and time course of hem- and lymphangiogenesis after keratoplasty was observed, by using double immunofluorescence of corneal flatmounts (with CD31 as a panendothelial and LYVE-1 as a lymphatic vascular endothelium-specific marker). A molecular trap designed to eliminate VEGF-A (VEGF Trap(R1R2); 12.5 mg/kg) was tested for its ability to inhibit both processes after keratoplasty and to promote long-term graft survival (intraperitoneal injections on the day of surgery and 3, 7, and 14 days later). RESULTS: No blood or lymph vessels were detectable immediately after normal-risk transplantation in either donor or host cornea, but hem- and lymphangiogenesis were clearly visible at day 3 after transplantation. Both vessel types reached donor tissue at 1 week after allografting and similarly after syngeneic grafting. Early postoperative trapping of VEGF-A significantly reduced both hem- and lymphangiogenesis and significantly improved long-term graft survival (78% vs. 40%; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is concurrent, VEGF-A-dependent hem- and lymphangiogenesis after normal-risk keratoplasty within the preoperatively avascular recipient bed. Inhibition of hem- and lymphangiogenesis (afferent and efferent arm of an immune response) after normal-risk corneal transplantation improves long-term graft survival, establishing early postoperative hem- and lymphangiogenesis as novel risk factors for graft rejection even in low-risk eyes.

Xu H, Edwards JR, Espinosa O, Banerji S, Jackson DG, Athanasou NA. 2004. Expression of a lymphatic endothelial cell marker in benign and malignant vascular tumors. Hum Pathol, 35 (7), pp. 857-861. | Show Abstract | Read more

Tumors of endothelial cell origin are relatively common. Soft tissue tumors and numerous subtypes of benign and malignant vascular tumors have been described; the histogenesis of many of these tumors is uncertain, and distinguishing between benign and malignant vascular tumors, some of which express lymphatic endothelial cell markers, can be problematic. In the present study, immunophenotypic expression of a novel hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1), which is expressed by endothelial cells of normal lymphatic vessels but not blood vessels, was determined in benign and malignant vascular tumors. It was found that, except in lymphangiomas, intramuscular hemangiomas, and Masson's hemangiomas, endothelial cells in benign blood vessel tumors (including capillary and cavernous hemangiomas, glomus tumors, pyogenic granulomas, and epithelioid hemangiomas) were negative for LYVE-1, and that all angiosarcomas and Kaposi's sarcomas were positive for LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 and other lymphatic endothelial cell markers in relatively few vascular neoplasms has implications for the histogenesis of these lesions, and may prove useful in distinguishing angiosarcoma and Kaposi's sarcoma from most common benign vascular tumors.

Garcia de la Torre N, Buley I, Wass JA, Jackson DG, Turner HE. 2004. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in parathyroid proliferative lesions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 89 (6), pp. 2890-2896. | Show Abstract | Read more

Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are involved in tumoral growth and metastatic spread. There is little information on angiogenesis and no available data on lymphangiogenesis in parathyroid glands (PTG). Using immunohistochemistry for CD34, LYVE-1 (specific markers for vascular and lymphatic endothelium, respectively), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, this study analyzes microvascular density (MVD), lymphatic vascular density (LVD), and expression of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic growth factors in 13 normal PTG, 77 parathyroid adenomas (PTA), and 17 primary parathyroid hyperplasia (PPH). MVD was higher in PPH and PTA, compared with PTG (P < 0.001). There was no difference in VEGF-A expression among groups. In contrast, FGF-2 expression was higher in PPH, compared with PTA and PTG (P < 0.0001). FGF-2 scores and MVD were significantly correlated (r = 0.43). LVD did not differ among groups, and VEGF-C expression was unrelated to LVD. There was no relationship between MVD and tumor behavior (adenoma size, PTH, or calcium). In conclusion, this study shows increased angiogenesis in parathyroid proliferative lesions compared with normal glands and suggests that FGF-2 is proangiogenic in parathyroid tissue. In PTA, tumor behavior is not related to angiogenic phenotype. This is the first demonstration of lymphatic vessels in PTG, but the lack of correlation with VEGF-C expression suggests that VEGF-C is not the primary lymphangiogenic factor.

Engering A, van Vliet SJ, Hebeda K, Jackson DG, Prevo R, Singh SK, Geijtenbeek TB, van Krieken H, van Kooyk Y. 2004. Dynamic populations of dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin-positive immature dendritic cells and liver/lymph node-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin-positive endothelial cells in the outer zones of the paracortex of human lymph nodes. Am J Pathol, 164 (5), pp. 1587-1595. | Show Abstract | Read more

In the paracortex of lymph nodes, cellular immune responses are generated against antigens captured in peripheral tissues by dendritic cells (DCs). DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin), a C-type lectin exclusively expressed by DCs, functions as an antigen receptor as well as an adhesion receptor. A functional homologue of DC-SIGN, L-SIGN (liver/lymph node-SIGN, also called DC-SIGN-related), is expressed by liver sinus endothelial cells. In lymph nodes, both DC-SIGN and L-SIGN are expressed. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of these two SIGN molecules in detail in both normal and immunoreactive lymph nodes. DC-SIGN is expressed by mature DCs in paracortical areas and in addition by DCs with an immature phenotype in the outer zones of the paracortex. L-SIGN expression was also detected in the outer zones on sinus endothelial cells characterized by their expression of the lymphatic endothelial markers LYVE-1 and CLEVER-1. During both cellular and humoral immune responses changes in the amount of DC-SIGN+ immature and mature DCs and L-SIGN+ endothelial cells were observed, indicating that the influx or proliferation of these cells is dynamically regulated.

Stessels F, Van den Eynden G, Van der Auwera I, Salgado R, Van den Heuvel E, Harris AL, Jackson DG, Colpaert CG, van Marck EA, Dirix LY, Vermeulen PB. 2004. Breast adenocarcinoma liver metastases, in contrast to colorectal cancer liver metastases, display a non-angiogenic growth pattern that preserves the stroma and lacks hypoxia. Br J Cancer, 90 (7), pp. 1429-1436. | Show Abstract | Read more

Although angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the growth of most human solid tumours, alternative mechanisms of vascularisation can be adopted. We have previously described a non-angiogenic growth pattern in liver metastases of colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRC) in which tumour cells replace hepatocytes at the tumour-liver interface, preserving the liver architecture and co-opting the sinusoidal blood vessels. The aim of this study was to determine whether this replacement pattern occurs during liver metastasis of breast adenocarcinomas (BC) and whether the lack of an angiogenic switch in such metastases is due to the absence of hypoxia and subsequent vascular fibrinogen leakage. The growth pattern of 45 BC liver metastases and 28 CRC liver metastases (73 consecutive patients) was assessed on haematoxylin- and eosin-stained tissue sections. The majority of the BC liver metastases had a replacement growth pattern (96%), in contrast to only 32% of the CRC metastases (P<0.0001). The median carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) expression (M75 antibody), as a marker of hypoxia, (intensity x % of stained tumour cells) was 0 in the BC metastases and 53 in the CRC metastases (P<0.0001). There was CA9 expression at the tumour-liver interface in only 16% of the BC liver metastases vs 54% of the CRC metastases (P=0.002). There was fibrin (T2G1 antibody) at the tumour-liver interface in only 21% of the BC metastases vs 56% of the CRC metastases (P=0.04). The median macrophage count (Chalkley morphometry; KP-1 anti-CD68 antibody) at the interface was 4.3 and 7.5, respectively (P<0.0001). Carbonic anhydrase 9 score and macrophage count were positively correlated (r=0.42; P=0.002) in all metastases. Glandular differentiation was less in the BC liver metastases: 80% had less than 10% gland formation vs only 7% of the CRC metastases (P<0.0001). The liver is a densely vascularised organ and can host metastases that exploit this environment by replacing the hepatocytes and co-opting the vasculature. Our findings confirm that a non-angiogenic pattern of liver metastasis indeed occurs in BC, that this pattern of replacement growth is even more prevalent than in CRC, and that the process induces neither hypoxia nor vascular leakage.

Cursiefen C, Chen L, Borges LP, Jackson D, Cao J, Radziejewski C, D'Amore PA, Dana MR, Wiegand SJ, Streilein JW. 2004. VEGF-A stimulates lymphangiogenesis and hemangiogenesis in inflammatory neovascularization via macrophage recruitment. J Clin Invest, 113 (7), pp. 1040-1050. | Show Abstract | Read more

Lymphangiogenesis, an important initial step in tumor metastasis and transplant sensitization, is mediated by the action of VEGF-C and -D on VEGFR3. In contrast, VEGF-A binds VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 and is an essential hemangiogenic factor. We re-evaluated the potential role of VEGF-A in lymphangiogenesis using a novel model in which both lymphangiogenesis and hemangiogenesis are induced in the normally avascular cornea. Administration of VEGF Trap, a receptor-based fusion protein that binds and neutralizes VEGF-A but not VEGF-C or -D, completely inhibited both hemangiogenesis and the outgrowth of LYVE-1(+) lymphatic vessels following injury. Furthermore, both lymphangiogenesis and hemangiogenesis were significantly reduced in mice transgenic for VEGF-A(164/164) or VEGF-A(188/188) (each of which expresses only one of the three principle VEGF-A isoforms). Because VEGF-A is chemotactic for macrophages and we demonstrate here that macrophages in inflamed corneas release lymphangiogenic VEGF-C/VEGF-D, we evaluated the possibility that macrophage recruitment plays a role in VEGF-A-mediated lymphangiogenesis. Either systemic depletion of all bone marrow-derived cells (by irradiation) or local depletion of macrophages in the cornea (using clodronate liposomes) prior to injury significantly inhibited both hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. We conclude that VEGF-A recruitment of monocytes/macrophages plays a crucial role in inducing inflammatory neovascularization by supplying/amplifying signals essential for pathological hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.

Jackson DG. 2004. Hyaluronan and lymphedema. Lymphology, 37 (1), pp. 1-5.

Teriete P, Banerji S, Noble M, Blundell CD, Wright AJ, Pickford AR, Lowe E, Mahoney DJ, Tammi MI, Kahmann JD et al. 2004. Structure of the regulatory hyaluronan binding domain in the inflammatory leukocyte homing receptor CD44. Mol Cell, 13 (4), pp. 483-496. | Show Abstract | Read more

Adhesive interactions involving CD44, the cell surface receptor for hyaluronan, underlie fundamental processes such as inflammatory leukocyte homing and tumor metastasis. Regulation of such events is critical and appears to be effected by changes in CD44 N-glycosylation that switch the receptor "on" or "off" under appropriate circumstances. How altered glycosylation influences binding of hyaluronan to the lectin-like Link module in CD44 is unclear, although evidence suggests additional flanking sequences peculiar to CD44 may be involved. Here we show using X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy that these sequences form a lobular extension to the Link module, creating an enlarged HA binding domain and a formerly unidentified protein fold. Moreover, the disposition of key N-glycosylation sites reveals how specific sugar chains could alter both the affinity and avidity of CD44 HA binding. Our results provide the necessary structural framework for understanding the diverse functions of CD44 and developing novel therapeutic strategies.

Galeotti F, Barzagli F, Vercelli A, Millanta F, Poli A, Jackson DG, Abramo F. 2004. Feline lymphangiosarcoma--definitive identification using a lymphatic vascular marker. Vet Dermatol, 15 (1), pp. 13-18. | Show Abstract | Read more

Three cases of feline exudative dermatitis associated with lymphangiosarcoma are described. The animals, an 11-year-old, neutered male and two 10-year-old, neutered female short hair European cats, presented with a 2-month history of transparent liquid oozing from the skin of the groin and caudal abdomen. On physical examination the neutered male cat and one of the females were slightly depressed and showed loss of weight. Skin lesions were similar in all cats and characterized by the presence of alopecia and moist dermatitis in the ventral abdomen, groin and inner thigh. The hair at the periphery appeared matted by the fluid. In all three cases, histopathological examination of skin biopsies from the abdomen identified poorly defined neoplasia involving dermis and subcutis, characterized by proliferation of spindle cells aligned along pre-existing collagen bundles. The dissection of collagen bundles gave rise to irregular shaped anastomosing, often blind-ending vascular channels and trabeculae. Vascular spaces were mostly optically empty. These histological features were strongly suggestive of lymphangiosarcoma. Neoplastic cells were positive for the blood vascular marker Von Willebrand factor, and a lymphatic vascular marker LYVE-1 (Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial receptor - 1), demonstrating the mixed vascular origin of the tumour. Ultrastructural findings confirmed the final diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma.

Jackson DG. 2004. Biology of the lymphatic marker LYVE-1 and applications in research into lymphatic trafficking and lymphangiogenesis. APMIS, 112 (7-8), pp. 526-538. | Show Abstract | Read more

The pace of research into the lymphatic system continues to accelerate with the availability of new molecular markers. One such marker, LYVE-1, the lymphatic receptor for the extracellular matrix mucopolysaccharide hyaluronan, has been a key component of many important studies on embryonic and tumour-induced lymphangiogenesis, and continues to be used for the detection and isolation of lymphatic endothelial cells. However, LYVE-1 is interesting in its own right. Being a member of the Link protein family whose only other major hyaluronan receptor is directly involved in leukocyte migration and tumour metastasis, LYVE-1 is already implicated in the trafficking of cells within lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes. The current challenge is to determine the precise roles played by LYVE-1 and other scavenger type receptors in the immune functions of the lymphatics as well as to use LYVE-1 and other markers to investigate the way in which tumours exploit lymphatic vessels for metastasis.

Karkkainen MJ, Haiko P, Sainio K, Partanen J, Taipale J, Petrova TV, Jeltsch M, Jackson DG, Talikka M, Rauvala H et al. 2004. Vascular endothelial growth factor C is required for sprouting of the first lymphatic vessels from embryonic veins. Nat Immunol, 5 (1), pp. 74-80. | Show Abstract | Read more

Lymphatic vessels are essential for immune surveillance, tissue fluid homeostasis and fat absorption. Defects in lymphatic vessel formation or function cause lymphedema. Here we show that the vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is required for the initial steps in lymphatic development. In Vegfc-/- mice, endothelial cells commit to the lymphatic lineage but do not sprout to form lymph vessels. Sprouting was rescued by VEGF-C and VEGF-D but not by VEGF, indicating VEGF receptor 3 specificity. The lack of lymphatic vessels resulted in prenatal death due to fluid accumulation in tissues, and Vegfc+/- mice developed cutaneous lymphatic hypoplasia and lymphedema. Our results indicate that VEGF-C is the paracrine factor essential for lymphangiogenesis, and show that both Vegfc alleles are required for normal lymphatic development.

Van Trappen PO, Steele D, Lowe DG, Baithun S, Beasley N, Thiele W, Weich H, Krishnan J, Shepherd JH, Pepper MS et al. 2003. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D, and their receptor VEGFR-3, during different stages of cervical carcinogenesis. J Pathol, 201 (4), pp. 544-554. | Show Abstract | Read more

Cervical carcinogenesis has well-defined stages of disease progression including three grades of pre-invasive lesions--cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1-3 (CIN 1-3)--and invasive cervical cancer. However, the biological properties of CIN lesions prone to develop invasive disease are not well defined. Recent observations suggest that early invasive disease spreads to regional lymph nodes in several tumour types and that growth factors (VEGF-C and VEGF-D) involved in new lymphatic vessel formation may play a crucial role in this process. The present study has assessed the expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D, and their receptor VEGFR-3, in 152 cervical lesions (33 CIN 1, 33 CIN 2, 37 CIN 3, and 49 squamous cell carcinomas) to determine whether expression of lymphangiogenic factors occurs prior to invasion. The presence of lymphatic vessels was determined using LYVE-1 and podoplanin staining, as well as double immunostaining for LYVE-1/CD34 and podoplanin/CD34. In situ hybridization was performed to determine VEGFR-3 mRNA expression. A significant positive correlation was found between VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR-3 expression through the different stages of cervical carcinogenesis. Significant differences in protein expression for VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR-3 were found between CIN 1-2 and CIN 3 (p<0.001 for all), but not between CIN 3 and cervical cancer. More than 50% of the CIN 3 lesions showed moderate to strong staining for VEGF-C and VEGF-D, whereas most of the early pre-cancerous lesions (CIN 1 and 2) were negative. In cervical cancer, similar observations to those in CIN 3 were found. VEGFR-3 mRNA expression was found in the cytoplasm of epithelial neoplastic cells and VEGFR3 protein expression was found in more than 50% of CIN 3 lesions and cervical cancers, compared with 15% in CIN 1 and 2. These findings suggest an autocrine growth stimulation pattern via VEGFR-3. Adjacent CIN 3 was present in nine cervical cancers and displayed strong expression for VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR-3. These results suggest that in cervical carcinogenesis a switch to the lymphangiogenic phenotype may occur at the stage of CIN 3.

Williams CS, Leek RD, Robson AM, Banerji S, Prevo R, Harris AL, Jackson DG. 2003. Absence of lymphangiogenesis and intratumoural lymph vessels in human metastatic breast cancer. J Pathol, 200 (2), pp. 195-206. | Show Abstract | Read more

Early metastasis to lymph nodes is a frequent complication in human breast cancer. However, the extent to which this depends on lymphangiogenesis or on invasion of existing lymph vessels remains controversial. Although proliferating intratumoural lymphatics that promote nodal metastasis have been demonstrated in experimental breast tumours overexpressing VEGF-C, it has yet to be determined whether the same phenomena occur in spontaneous human breast cancers. To address this important issue, the present study investigated the lymphatics in primary human breast carcinoma (75 cases of invasive ductal and lobular breast cancer) by quantitative immunohistochemical staining for the lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1, the blood vascular marker CD34, and the nuclear proliferation marker pKi67. None of the breast carcinomas was found to contain dividing lymph vessels, even in areas of active haemangiogenesis. Furthermore, the majority of non-dividing lymph vessels were confined to the tumour periphery where their incidence was low and unrelated to tumour size, grade or nodal status; rather, their density was inversely correlated with tumour aggressiveness as assessed by macrophage density (p = 0.009), and blood microvessel density (p = 0.05, Spearman Rank), as well as with distance from the tumour edge. Finally, a proportion of the peritumoural lymphatics contained tumour emboli associated with hyaluronan, indicating a possible role for LYVE-1/hyaluronan interactions in lymphatic invasion or metastasis. These results suggest that naturally occurring breast carcinomas invade and destroy lymph vessels rather than promoting their proliferation; that breast tumour lymphangiogenesis may not always occur at physiological VEGF-C levels; and that nodal metastasis can proceed via pre-existing lymphatics.

Dadras SS, Paul T, Bertoncini J, Brown LF, Muzikansky A, Jackson DG, Ellwanger U, Garbe C, Mihm MC, Detmar M. 2003. Tumor lymphangiogenesis: a novel prognostic indicator for cutaneous melanoma metastasis and survival. Am J Pathol, 162 (6), pp. 1951-1960. | Show Abstract | Read more

Malignant melanomas of the skin are distinguished by their propensity for early metastatic spread via lymphatic vessels to regional lymph nodes, and lymph node metastasis is a major determinant for the staging and clinical management of melanoma. However, the importance of tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis for lymphatic melanoma spread has remained unclear. We investigated whether tumor lymphangiogenesis occurs in human malignant melanomas of the skin and whether the extent of tumor lymphangiogenesis may be related to the risk for lymph node metastasis and to patient survival, using double immunostains for the novel lymphatic endothelial marker LYVE-1 and for the panvascular marker CD31. Tumor samples were obtained from clinically and histologically closely matched cases of primary melanomas with early lymph node metastasis (n = 18) and from nonmetastatic melanomas (n = 19). Hot spots of proliferating intratumoral and peritumoral lymphatic vessels were detected in a large number of melanomas. The incidence of intratumoral lymphatics was significantly higher in metastatic melanomas and correlated with poor disease-free survival. Metastatic melanomas had significantly more and larger tumor-associated lymphatic vessels, and a relative lymphatic vessel area of >1.5% was significantly associated with poor disease-free and overall survival. In contrast, no differences in the density of tumor-associated blood vessels were found. Vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression was equally detected in a minority of cases in both groups. Our results reveal tumor lymphangiogenesis as a novel prognostic indicator for the risk of lymph node metastasis in cutaneous melanoma.

Kriederman BM, Myloyde TL, Witte MH, Dagenais SL, Witte CL, Rennels M, Bernas MJ, Lynch MT, Erickson RP, Caulder MS et al. 2003. FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome. Hum Mol Genet, 12 (10), pp. 1179-1185. | Show Abstract | Read more

Lymphedema-distichiasis (LD) (OMIM 153400) is a rare autosomal-dominant condition characterized by pubertal onset of lower limb lymphedema and an aberrant second row of eyelashes arising from the meibomian glands. In some patients cardiac, skeletal and other defects coexist. We previously identified inactivating, nonsense and frameshift mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXC2 in affected members of LD families. To further delineate the relationship of FOXC2 deficiency to the clinical (and lymphangiodysplastic) phenotype in this syndrome, we performed dynamic lymphatic imaging and immunohistochemical examination of lymphatic tissues in mice heterozygous (+/-) for a targeted disruption of Foxc2. Adult heterozygote mice characteristically exhibited a generalized lymphatic vessel and lymph node hyper plasia and rarely exhibited hindlimb swelling. Retrograde lymph flow through apparently incompetent interlymphangion valves into the mesenteric nodes, intestinal wall and liver was also observed. In addition, Foxc2 +/- mice uniformly displayed distichiasis. We conclude that Foxc2 haploinsufficient mice mimic closely the distinctive lymphatic and ocular phenotype of LD patients. Furthermore, the craniofacial, cardiovascular and skeletal abnormalities sometimes associated with LD have previously been shown to be fully penetrant in homozygous Foxc2 null mice. This Foxc2 mutant mouse thus provides an ideal model for exploring molecular mechanisms and physiologic events in mesenchymal differentiation associated with lymphatic growth and development and the clinical abnormalities seen in human LD syndrome.

Maula SM, Luukkaa M, Grénman R, Jackson D, Jalkanen S, Ristamäki R. 2003. Intratumoral lymphatics are essential for the metastatic spread and prognosis in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. Cancer Res, 63 (8), pp. 1920-1926. | Show Abstract

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) frequently disseminate to regional lymph nodes. To investigate the possible mechanisms involved, we studied the expression of cancer cell adhesion molecules together with lymphatic vascular and blood vascular markers in a panel of 97 primary HNSCC tumors and correlated expression levels with conventional clinicopathological parameters and with long-term prognosis. In particular, we measured the density of intratumoral and peritumoral lymph vessels as assessed with the marker lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1) and the density of tumor CD44, a receptor up-regulated in many metastatic cancers. Intratumoral LYVE-1(+) lymphatic vessels were clearly associated with a higher risk for local relapse as well as with poor disease-specific prognosis (P = 0.02 and 0.0009, respectively). In contrast, a high density of peritumoral LYVE-1(+) vessels was a sign of favorable survival (P = 0.05). Strong primary tumor CD44 expression was associated with a poor prognosis, an increased risk of local recurrence (P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively), and an increase in resistance to radiation therapy (P = 0.03). CD44 was the only factor with an independent prognostic value for the disease-specific overall survival (P = 0.04). Our results suggest that intratumoral lymphatics play a greater role than peritumoral lymphatics in nodal metastasis of HNSCC and that tumor CD44 levels can predict sensitivity to radiation therapy. These parameters may be useful predictive and prognostic tools in the clinical management of HNSCC.

Abtahian F, Guerriero A, Sebzda E, Lu MM, Zhou R, Mocsai A, Myers EE, Huang B, Jackson DG, Ferrari VA et al. 2003. Regulation of blood and lymphatic vascular separation by signaling proteins SLP-76 and Syk. Science, 299 (5604), pp. 247-251. | Show Abstract | Read more

Lymphatic vessels develop from specialized endothelial cells in preexisting blood vessels, but the molecular signals that regulate this separation are unknown. Here we identify a failure to separate emerging lymphatic vessels from blood vessels in mice lacking the hematopoietic signaling protein SLP-76 or Syk. Blood-lymphatic connections lead to embryonic hemorrhage and arteriovenous shunting. Expression of slp-76 could not be detected in endothelial cells, and blood-filled lymphatics also arose in wild-type mice reconstituted with SLP-76-deficient bone marrow. These studies reveal a hematopoietic signaling pathway required for separation of the two major vascular networks in mammals.

Xu H, Edwards J, Banerji S, Prevo R, Jackson DG, Athanasou NA. 2003. Distribution of lymphatic vessels in normal and arthritic human synovial tissues. Ann Rheum Dis, 62 (12), pp. 1227-1229. | Show Abstract | Read more

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the distribution of lymphatic vessels in normal, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) synovium. METHODS: Synovial tissues from 5 normal controls, 14 patients with RA, and 16 patients with OA were studied. Lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemistry using antibodies directed against the lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) and recognised blood vessel endothelial markers (factor VIII, CD34, CD31). RESULTS: Lymphatic vessels were found in all zones of the normal, OA, and RA synovial membrane. Few lymphatic vessels were seen in the sublining zone in normal and OA synovium which did not show villous hypertrophy. However, in both RA synovium and OA synovium showing villous hypertrophy and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate, numerous lymphatic vessels were seen in all zones of the synovial membrane, including the sublining zone of the superficial subintima. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphatic vessels are present in normal and arthritic synovial tissues and are more numerous and prominent where there is oedema and an increase in inflammatory cells in the subintima, particularly in RA. This may reflect increased transport of hyaluronan and leucocyte trafficking in inflamed synovial tissues.

Straume O, Jackson DG, Akslen LA. 2003. Independent prognostic impact of lymphatic vessel density and presence of low-grade lymphangiogenesis in cutaneous melanoma. Clin Cancer Res, 9 (1), pp. 250-256. | Show Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine lymphatic vessel density (LVD) in a series of nodular melanoma and correlate the findings with the expression of several angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor-C, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), patient survival, and clinico-pathologic data. Patients with nodular melanoma and complete follow-up information were included. Lymphatic vessels were immunostained with the LYVE-1 and Podoplanin antibodies, and LVD was evaluated in both intra- and peri-tumoral (LVDpt) areas. Median LVD was 6.3 and 12.5 vessels/mm(2) in intra- and peri-tumoral areas, and coexpression of LYVE-1 and Ki-67/MIB-1 in lymphatic endothelial cells within the tumor was demonstrated, indicating active but low-grade lymphangiogenesis. Increased LVDpt was significantly associated with localization on the extremities (P = 0.005), decreased tumor thickness (P = 0.036), absence of vascular invasion (P = 0.004), brisk lymphocytic infiltration (P = 0.018), low proliferative rate by Ki-67 (P = 0.011), increased bFGF expression in tumor cells (P = 0.01) as well as in endothelial cells (P = 0.008), and decreased tumor cell expression of Ephrin-A1 (P = 0.009). Decreased LVD in intra-tumoral areas and LVDpt both predicted improved survival rates in multivariate analyses (for LVDpt, Hazard ratio: 2.1, P = 0.009). We found that decreased LVD was present in thicker and more proliferative tumors (Ki-67) and that increased LVD was significantly associated with improved patient survival in multivariate analysis. In addition, our data suggest the presence of low-grade intra-tumoral lymphangiogenesis in melanoma and a stimulating role of bFGF in lymphangiogenesis.

Jackson DG. 2003. The lymphatics revisited: new perspectives from the hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1. Trends Cardiovasc Med, 13 (1), pp. 1-7. | Show Abstract | Read more

The lymphatic vasculature forms a second circulatory system that drains extracellular fluid from the tissues and provides an exclusive environment in which immune cells can encounter and respond to foreign antigen. Although equally important for the functioning of both the cardiovascular and immune systems, there is only a rudimentary knowledge of the molecular biology of lymphatics, owing to longstanding difficulties in identifying and isolating lymphatic endothelial cells. Recently, however, a number of interesting molecules have been identified that may be exploited as markers for lymphatic endothelium, including the hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1, the subject of this review. This article considers the biology of LYVE-1 and outlines how recent research into this molecule is providing new insights into the nature of lymphatics and their role in tumor metastasis.

Yoon YS, Murayama T, Gravereaux E, Tkebuchava T, Silver M, Curry C, Wecker A, Kirchmair R, Hu CS, Kearney M et al. 2003. VEGF-C gene therapy augments postnatal lymphangiogenesis and ameliorates secondary lymphedema. J Clin Invest, 111 (5), pp. 717-725. | Show Abstract | Read more

Although lymphedema is a common clinical condition, treatment for this disabling condition remains limited and largely ineffective. Recently, it has been reported that overexpression of VEGF-C correlates with increased lymphatic vessel growth (lymphangiogenesis). However, the effect of VEGF-C-induced lymphangiogenesis on lymphedema has yet to be demonstrated. Here we investigated the impact of local transfer of naked plasmid DNA encoding human VEGF-C (phVEGF-C) on two animal models of lymphedema: one in the rabbit ear and the other in the mouse tail. In a rabbit model, following local phVEGF-C gene transfer, VEGFR-3 expression was significantly increased. This gene transfer led to a decrease in thickness and volume of lymphedema, improvement of lymphatic function demonstrated by serial lymphoscintigraphy, and finally, attenuation of the fibrofatty changes of the skin, the final consequences of lymphedema. The favorable effect of phVEGF-C on lymphedema was reconfirmed in a mouse tail model. Immunohistochemical analysis using lymphatic-specific markers: VEGFR-3, lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, together with the proliferation marker Ki-67 Ab revealed that phVEGF-C transfection potently induced new lymphatic vessel growth. This study, we believe for the first time, documents that gene transfer of phVEGF-C resolves lymphedema through direct augmentation of lymphangiogenesis. This novel therapeutic strategy may merit clinical investigation in patients with lymphedema.

Podgrabinska S, Braun P, Velasco P, Kloos B, Pepper MS, Skobe M. 2002. Molecular characterization of lymphatic endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99 (25), pp. 16069-16074. | Show Abstract | Read more

The lymphatic microvasculature is uniquely adapted for the continuous removal of interstitial fluid and proteins and is an important entry point for leukocytes and tumor cells. Specialized functions of lymphatics suggest differences in the molecular composition of the lymphatic and blood vascular endothelium. However, the extent to which the two cell types differ is still unclear, and few molecules that are truly specific to lymphatic endothelial cells have been identified to date. We have isolated primary lymphatic and blood microvascular endothelial cells from human skin by immunoselection with the lymphatic marker LYVE-1 and demonstrate that the two cell lineages express distinct sets of vascular markers and respond differently to growth factors and extracellular matrix. Comparative microarray analysis of gene-expression profiles revealed a number of unique molecular properties that distinguish lymphatic and blood vascular endothelium. The molecular profile of lymphatic endothelium seems to reflect characteristic functional and structural features of the lymphatic capillaries. Classification of the differentially expressed genes into functional groups revealed particularly high levels of genes implicated in protein sorting and trafficking, indicating a more active role of lymphatic endothelium in uptake and transport of molecules than previously anticipated. The identification of a large number of genes selectively expressed by lymphatic endothelium should facilitate the discovery of hitherto unknown lymphatic vessel markers and provide a basis for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the characteristic functions of lymphatic capillaries.

Palumbo JS, Potter JM, Kaplan LS, Talmage K, Jackson DG, Degen JL. 2002. Spontaneous hematogenous and lymphatic metastasis, but not primary tumor growth or angiogenesis, is diminished in fibrinogen-deficient mice. Cancer Res, 62 (23), pp. 6966-6972. | Show Abstract

Previous studies of tumor cell-associated procoagulants and fibrinolytic factors have strongly suggested that local thrombin and plasmin generation may be important in tumor growth and dissemination. Given that one central target of both of these serine proteases is fibrin(ogen), a logical extension of this hypothesis is that local fibrin deposition and dissolution may be key determinants of tumor progression. In this paper, the role of fibrin(ogen) and its degradation products in the growth and spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma was directly examined by comparative studies of control and fibrinogen-deficient mice. Fibrinogen deficiency was found to have no effect on the time required for the formation of palpable tumors, tumor angiogenesis, overall tumor architecture, or primary (s.c.) or secondary (pulmonary) tumor growth. However, fibrinogen deficiency markedly reduced the incidence of spontaneous macroscopic metastases in the lung and regional lymph nodes, a process that occurred relatively late in tumor development. Furthermore, a significant quantitative reduction in pulmonary micrometastases was observed in fibrinogen-deficient mice. Quantitative analyses of pulmonary micrometastases in primary tumor-bearing mice indicated that spontaneous showering of tumor cell emboli into the lung was robust, regardless of animal genotype. Hence, our results suggest fibrin(ogen) plays an important role in spontaneous metastasis, facilitating the stable adhesion and/or survival of metastatic emboli after tumor cell intravasation. These studies suggest that therapeutic strategies focusing on hemostatic factors may be effective in controlling solid tumor metastasis, particularly if used for the treatment of micrometastatic disease.

Hawighorst T, Oura H, Streit M, Janes L, Nguyen L, Brown LF, Oliver G, Jackson DG, Detmar M. 2002. Thrombospondin-1 selectively inhibits early-stage carcinogenesis and angiogenesis but not tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in transgenic mice. Oncogene, 21 (52), pp. 7945-7956. | Show Abstract | Read more

The roles played by the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in the early stages of multi-step carcinogenesis and in the control of hematogenous versus lymphatic metastasis are unknown. To investigate these issues we compared tumor development in normal mice and in transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of TSP-1 in the epidermis following a standard two-step chemical skin carcinogenesis regimen. Overexpression of TSP-1 resulted in delayed and reduced development of premalignant epithelial hyperplasias, but did not inhibit the malignant conversion to squamous cell carcinomas. TSP-1 overexpression also suppressed tumor angiogenesis and distant organ metastasis, but failed to inhibit tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis or lymphatic tumor spread to regional lymph nodes. Concomitant with these results, we found that the endothelial TSP-1 receptor CD36 was mostly absent from cutaneous lymphatic vessels. Our findings indicate the potential use of TSP-1 for the prevention of premalignant stages of tumorigenesis and are likely to have implications for the further development of anti-angiogenic cancer therapies.

Gale NW, Thurston G, Hackett SF, Renard R, Wang Q, McClain J, Martin C, Witte C, Witte MH, Jackson D et al. 2002. Angiopoietin-2 is required for postnatal angiogenesis and lymphatic patterning, and only the latter role is rescued by Angiopoietin-1. Dev Cell, 3 (3), pp. 411-423. | Show Abstract | Read more

VEGF and Angiopoietin-1 requisitely collaborate during blood vessel development. While Angiopoietin-1 obligately activates its Tie2 receptor, Angiopoietin-2 can activate Tie2 on some cells, while it blocks Tie2 activation on others. Our analysis of mice lacking Angiopoietin-2 reveals that Angiopoietin-2 is dispensable for embryonic vascular development but is requisite for subsequent angiogenic remodeling. Unexpectedly, mice lacking Angiopoietin-2 also exhibit major lymphatic vessel defects. Genetic rescue with Angiopoietin-1 corrects the lymphatic, but not the angiogenesis, defects, suggesting that Angiopoietin-2 acts as a Tie2 agonist in the former setting, but as an antagonist in the latter setting. Our studies define a vascular growth factor whose primary role is in postnatal angiogenic remodeling and also demonstrate that members of the VEGF and Angiopoietin families collaborate during development of the lymphatic vasculature.

Cursiefen C, Schlötzer-Schrehardt U, Küchle M, Sorokin L, Breiteneder-Geleff S, Alitalo K, Jackson D. 2002. Lymphatic vessels in vascularized human corneas: immunohistochemical investigation using LYVE-1 and podoplanin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 43 (7), pp. 2127-2135. | Show Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine whether lymphatic vessels exist in vascularized human corneas, by using immunohistochemistry with novel markers for lymphatic endothelium. METHODS: Human corneas exhibiting neovascularization secondary to keratitis, transplant rejection, trauma, and limbal insufficiency (n = 21) were assessed for lymphatic vessel content by conventional transmission electron microscopy and by immunostaining and immunoelectron microscopy with antibodies specific for the lymphatic endothelial markers, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) and the 38-kDa integral membrane glycoprotein podoplanin. In addition, corneas were stained for the lymphangiogenic growth factor VEGF-C, and its receptor VEGFR3 by immunohistochemistry and in situ RNA hybridization, respectively. RESULTS: Thin-walled, erythrocyte-free vessels staining with lymphatic markers (LYVE-1 and podoplanin) were found to constitute 8% of all vessels, to be more common in the early course of neovascularization, to be always associated with blood vessels and stromal inflammatory cells, and to correlate significantly with the degree of corneal hemangiogenesis (r = 0.6; P = 0.005). VEGF-C, VEGFR3, podoplanin, and LYVE-1 colocalized on the endothelial lining of lymphatic vessels. With immunogold labeling, LYVE-1 and podoplanin antigen were found on endothelial cells lining vessels with ultrastructural features of lymph vessels. CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemistry with novel lymph-endothelium markers and ultrastructural analyses indicate the existence of lymphatic vessels in vascularized human corneas. Human corneal lymphangiogenesis appears to be correlated with the degree of corneal hemangiogenesis and may at least partially be mediated by VEGF-C and its receptor VEGFR3.

Mattila MM, Ruohola JK, Karpanen T, Jackson DG, Alitalo K, Härkönen PL. 2002. VEGF-C induced lymphangiogenesis is associated with lymph node metastasis in orthotopic MCF-7 tumors. Int J Cancer, 98 (6), pp. 946-951. | Show Abstract | Read more

The spread of cancer cells to regional lymph nodes through the lymphatic system is the first step in the dissemination of breast cancer. In several human cancers including those of the breast and prostate, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is associated with lymph node metastasis. Our study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of VEGF-C on metastasis of poorly invasive, estrogen dependent human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MCF-7 breast cancer cells transfected with VEGF-C (MCF-7-VEGF-C) were grown as tumors in the mammary fat pads of nude mice implanted with subcutaneous estrogen pellets. Tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis were studied immunohistochemically using antibodies against lymphatic vessel hyaluronan receptor -1 (LYVE-1), VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), PECAM-1, pan-cytokeratin and estrogen dependent pS2 protein. Overexpression of VEGF-C in transfected MCF-7 cells stimulated in vivo tumor growth in xenotransplanted mice without affecting estrogen responsiveness. The resulting tumors metastasized to the regional lymph nodes in 75% (in 6 mice out of 8, Experiment I) and in 62% (in 5 mice out of 8, Experiment II) of mice bearing orthotopic tumors formed by MCF-7-VEGF-C cells whereas no metastases were observed in mice bearing tumors of control vector-transfected MCF-7 cells (MCF-7-Mock). The density of intratumoral and peritumoral lymphatic vessels was increased in tumors derived from MCF-7-VEGF-C cells but not MCF-7-Mock cells. Taken together, our results show that VEGF-C overexpression stimulates tumor lymphangiogenesis and induces normally poorly metastatic estrogen-dependent MCF-7 tumors to disseminate to local lymph nodes. These data suggest that VEGF-C has an important role in lymph node metastasis of breast cancer even at its hormone-dependent early stage.

Wigle JT, Harvey N, Detmar M, Lagutina I, Grosveld G, Gunn MD, Jackson DG, Oliver G. 2002. An essential role for Prox1 in the induction of the lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype. EMBO J, 21 (7), pp. 1505-1513. | Show Abstract | Read more

The process of angiogenesis has been well documented, but little is known about the biology of lymphatic endothelial cells and the molecular mechanisms controlling lymphangiogenesis. The homeobox gene Prox1 is expressed in a subpopulation of endothelial cells that, after budding from veins, gives rise to the mammalian lymphatic system. In Prox1(-)(/-) embryos, this budding becomes arrested at around embryonic day (E)11.5, resulting in embryos without lymphatic vasculature. Unlike the endothelial cells that bud off in E11.5 wild-type embryos, those of Prox1-null embryos did not co-express any lymphatic markers such as VEGFR-3, LYVE-1 or SLC. Instead, the mutant cells appeared to have a blood vascular phenotype, as determined by their expression of laminin and CD34. These results suggest that Prox1 activity is required for both maintenance of the budding of the venous endothelial cells and differentiation toward the lymphatic phenotype. On the basis of our findings, we propose that a blood vascular phenotype is the default fate of budding embryonic venous endothelial cells; upon expression of Prox1, these budding cells adopt a lymphatic vasculature phenotype.

Grant AJ, Goddard S, Ahmed-Choudhury J, Reynolds G, Jackson DG, Briskin M, Wu L, Hübscher SG, Adams DH. 2002. Hepatic expression of secondary lymphoid chemokine (CCL21) promotes the development of portal-associated lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammatory liver disease. Am J Pathol, 160 (4), pp. 1445-1455. | Show Abstract | Read more

The chronic inflammatory liver disease primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is associated with portal inflammation and the development of neolymphoid tissue in the liver. More than 70% of patients with PSC have a history of inflammatory bowel disease and we have previously reported that mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 is induced on dendritic cells and portal vascular endothelium in PSC. We now show that the lymph node-associated chemokine, CCL21 or secondary lymphoid chemokine, is also strongly up-regulated on CD34(+) vascular endothelium in portal associated lymphoid tissue in PSC. In contrast, CCL21 is absent from LYVE-1(+) lymphatic vessel endothelium. Intrahepatic lymphocytes in PSC include a population of CCR7(+) T cells only half of which express CD45RA and which respond to CCL21 in migration assays. The expression of CCL21 in association with mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 in portal tracts in PSC may promote the recruitment and retention of CCR7(+) mucosal lymphocytes leading to the establishment of chronic portal inflammation and the expanded portal-associated lymphoid tissue. This study provides further evidence for the existence of portal-associated lymphoid tissue and is the first evidence that ectopic CCL21 is associated with lymphoid neogenesis in human inflammatory disease.

Haak MC, Bartelings MM, Jackson DG, Webb S, van Vugt JM, Gittenberger-de Groot AC. 2002. Increased nuchal translucency is associated with jugular lymphatic distension. Hum Reprod, 17 (4), pp. 1086-1092. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Measurement of nuchal translucency (NT) is a widely used method of screening for chromosomal abnormalities. Increased NT is seen in a diversity of fetal malformations. The mechanism explaining the abnormal fluid accumulation and the transient nature of NT remains unexplained. METHODS: The nuchal regions of normal and trisomy 16 mouse embryos were examined for (lympho)vascular abnormalities using immunohistochemical markers against lymphatic vessels (LYVE-1) and smooth muscle (1A4) and endothelial (CD34) cells. Additionally, an ultrasonographic study was carried out on 17 human fetuses with an increased NT. Two of these fetuses were examined morphologically. RESULTS: In both abnormal human and mouse specimens, we found a mesenchyme lined cavity within the posterior nuchal region as well as bilaterally enlarged jugular LYVE-1 positive lymphatic sacs. The persistence of jugular lymphatic sacs was also confirmed by ultrasound in 14 human fetuses with increased NT. CONCLUSION: Our findings identify the cause of increased NT as mesenchymal oedema in the presence of distended jugular lymphatic sacs, detected by the hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1. The delayed organization and connection of these lymphatic sacs to the venous circulation might explain the transient nature of NT. Disturbance in timing of endothelial differentiation might be a common denominator in the origin of NT, linking cardiovascular and haemodynamic abnormalities.

Beasley NJ, Prevo R, Banerji S, Leek RD, Moore J, van Trappen P, Cox G, Harris AL, Jackson DG. 2002. Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer. Cancer Res, 62 (5), pp. 1315-1320. | Show Abstract

How tumors access and spread via the lymphatics is not understood. Although it is clear that dissemination via the blood system involves hemangiogenesis, it is uncertain whether tumors also induce lymphangiogenesis or simply invade existing peritumoral vessels. To address the issue we quantitated tumor lymph vessels in archival specimens of head and neck cancer by immunostaining for the recently described lymphatic endothelial marker LYVE-1, the vascular endothelial marker CD34, and the pKi67 proliferation marker, correlating lymph vessel density and proliferation index with clinical and pathological variables. Discrete "hotspots" of intratumoral small proliferating lymphatics were observed in all carcinomas, and a high intratumoral lymph vessel density was associated with neck node metastases (n = 23; P = 0.027) and an infiltrating margin of tumor invasion (P = 0.046) in the oropharyngeal subgroup. Quantitation of the lymphangiogenic growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor C by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed higher levels of mRNA in tumor tissue than in normal samples (n = 8; P = 0.017), but no obvious correlation with intratumoral lymphatics. Our results provide new evidence that proliferating lymphatics can occur in human cancers and may in some cases contribute to lymph node metastasis.

Jackson DG. 2001. New molecular markers for the study of tumour lymphangiogenesis. Anticancer Res, 21 (6B), pp. 4279-4283. | Show Abstract

The capacity of malignant tumours to metastasize to distant tissues presents a huge problem for the treatment of cancers using conventional surgical and cytotoxic drug therapies. One of the main routes for tumour spread is via the lymphatic vessels, an important conduit for tumours such as breast, lung and gastrointestinal tract that frequently colonize regional lymph nodes. In comparison with the vasculature however, little is known about the biology of tumour lymphatics, tumour lymphangiogenesis or the mechanisms that regulate entry and subsequent migration of tumour cells within lymphatic vessels. This situation has persisted because of the lack of specific molecular markers with which to visualize even normal lymphatics within tissues or to isolate lymphatic endothelial cells for in vitro experimental analysis. Just recently however, novel markers for lymphatic endothelial cells have been identified and their availability has revolutionized research in this field. In this article we highlight the main characteristics of these markers and review recent progress in their use to study tumour lymphangiogenesis.

Haak MC, Bartelings MM, Jackson DG, Webb S, de Groot AG, van Vugt JMG. 2001. Nuchal Translucency: a matter of transient jugular lymphatic distension. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS, 69 (4), pp. 672-672.

Skobe M, Hawighorst T, Alitalo K, Jackson D, Detmar M. 2001. Lymphangiogenesis in melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma and breast carcinoma JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY, 117 (2), pp. 392-392.

Jackson DG, Prevo R, Clasper S, Banerji S. 2001. LYVE-1, the lymphatic system and tumor lymphangiogenesis. Trends Immunol, 22 (6), pp. 317-321. | Show Abstract | Read more

Previous research into hyaluronan (HA) has focused on the role of this abundant tissue glycosaminoglycan in promoting cell migration through interactions with its transmembrane receptor CD44 on inflammatory leukocytes and tumor cells. The recent discovery of a new HA receptor, LYVE-1 (lymphatic vessel endothelial HA receptor), expressed predominantly in lymphatic vessels, highlights another aspect of HA biology: its continuous transit through the lymphatic system and its potential involvement in lymph node homing by CD44+ leukocytes and tumor cells. The functional role of LYVE-1 in lymphatic vessels and its application as a marker to study tumor lymphangiogenesis are important areas of investigation.

Prevo R, Banerji S, Ferguson DJ, Clasper S, Jackson DG. 2001. Mouse LYVE-1 is an endocytic receptor for hyaluronan in lymphatic endothelium. J Biol Chem, 276 (22), pp. 19420-19430. | Show Abstract | Read more

The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key substrate for cell migration in tissues during inflammation, wound healing, and neoplasia. Unlike other matrix components, hyaluronan (HA) is turned over rapidly, yet most degradation occurs not locally but within distant lymph nodes, through mechanisms that are not yet understood. While it is not clear which receptors are involved in binding and uptake of hyaluronan within the lymphatics, one likely candidate is the lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 recently described in our laboratory (Banerji, S., Ni, J., Wang, S., Clasper, S., Su, J., Tammi, R., Jones, M., and Jackson, D.G. (1999) J. Cell Biol. 144, 789-801). Here we present evidence that LYVE-1 is involved in the uptake of hyaluronan by lymphatic endothelial cells using a new murine LYVE-1 orthologue identified from the EST data base. We show that mouse LYVE-1 both binds and internalizes hyaluronan in transfected 293T fibroblasts in vitro and demonstrate using immunoelectron microscopy that it is distributed equally among the luminal and abluminal surfaces of lymphatic vessels in vivo. In addition, we show by means of specific antisera that expression of mouse LYVE-1 remains restricted to the lymphatics in homozygous knockout mice lacking a functional gene for CD44, the closest homologue of LYVE-1 and the only other Link superfamily HA receptor known to date. Together these results suggest a role for LYVE-1 in the transport of HA from tissue to lymph and imply that further novel hyaluronan receptors must exist that can compensate for the loss of CD44 function.

Mandriota SJ, Jussila L, Jeltsch M, Compagni A, Baetens D, Prevo R, Banerji S, Huarte J, Montesano R, Jackson DG et al. 2001. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C-mediated lymphangiogenesis promotes tumour metastasis. EMBO J, 20 (4), pp. 672-682. | Show Abstract | Read more

Metastasis is a frequent and lethal complication of cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a recently described lymphangiogenic factor. Increased expression of VEGF-C in primary tumours correlates with dissemination of tumour cells to regional lymph nodes. However, a direct role for VEGF-C in tumour lymphangiogenesis and subsequent metastasis has yet to be demonstrated. Here we report the establishment of transgenic mice in which VEGF-C expression, driven by the rat insulin promoter (Rip), is targeted to beta-cells of the endocrine pancreas. In contrast to wild-type mice, which lack peri-insular lymphatics, RipVEGF-C transgenics develop an extensive network of lymphatics around the islets of Langerhans. These mice were crossed with Rip1Tag2 mice, which develop pancreatic beta-cell tumours that are neither lymphangiogenic nor metastatic. Double-transgenic mice formed tumours surrounded by well developed lymphatics, which frequently contained tumour cell masses of beta-cell origin. These mice frequently developed pancreatic lymph node metastases. Our findings demonstrate that VEGF-C-induced lymphangiogenesis mediates tumour cell dissemination and the formation of lymph node metastases.

Skobe M, Hawighorst T, Jackson DG, Prevo R, Janes L, Velasco P, Riccardi L, Alitalo K, Claffey K, Detmar M. 2001. Induction of tumor lymphangiogenesis by VEGF-C promotes breast cancer metastasis. Nat Med, 7 (2), pp. 192-198. | Show Abstract | Read more

Metastasis of breast cancer occurs primarily through the lymphatic system, and the extent of lymph node involvement is a key prognostic factor for the disease. Whereas the significance of angiogenesis for tumor progression has been well documented, the ability of tumor cells to induce the growth of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis) and the presence of intratumoral lymphatic vessels have been controversial. Using a novel marker for lymphatic endothelium, LYVE-1, we demonstrate here the occurrence of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis within human breast cancers after orthotopic transplantation onto nude mice. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C overexpression in breast cancer cells potently increased intratumoral lymphangiogenesis, resulting in significantly enhanced metastasis to regional lymph nodes and to lungs. The degree of tumor lymphangiogenesis was highly correlated with the extent of lymph node and lung metastases. These results establish the occurrence and biological significance of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer and identify VEGF-C as a molecular link between tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis.

Enholm B, Karpanen T, Jeltsch M, Kubo H, Stenback F, Prevo R, Jackson DG, Yla-Herttuala S, Alitalo K. 2001. Adenoviral expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C induces lymphangiogenesis in the skin. Circ Res, 88 (6), pp. 623-629. | Show Abstract | Read more

The growth of blood and lymphatic vasculature is mediated in part by secreted polypeptides of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. The prototype VEGF binds VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1 and VEGFR-2 and is angiogenic, whereas VEGF-C, which binds to VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3, is either angiogenic or lymphangiogenic in different assays. We used an adenoviral gene transfer approach to compare the effects of these growth factors in adult mice. Recombinant adenoviruses encoding human VEGF-C or VEGF were injected subcutaneously into C57Bl6 mice or into the ears of nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that VEGF-C upregulated VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 expression and VEGF upregulated VEGFR-2 expression at 4 days after injection. After 2 weeks, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis, including staining for the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1), the vascular endothelial marker platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) revealed that VEGF-C induced mainly lymphangiogenesis in contrast to VEGF, which induced only angiogenesis. These results have significant implications in the planning of gene therapy using these growth factors.

Hartnell A, Steel J, Turley H, Jones M, Jackson DG, Crocker PR. 2001. Characterization of human sialoadhesin, a sialic acid binding receptor expressed by resident and inflammatory macrophage populations. Blood, 97 (1), pp. 288-296. | Show Abstract | Read more

Sialoadhesin is a macrophage-restricted cellular interaction molecule and a prototypic member of the Siglec family of sialic acid binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins. So far, it has only been characterized in rodents. Here, we report the molecular cloning, binding properties, and expression pattern of human sialoadhesin. The predicted protein sequences of human and mouse sialoadhesin are about 72% identical, with the greatest similarity in the extracellular region, which comprises 17 Ig domains in both species. A recombinant protein consisting of the first 4 N-terminal domains of human sialoadhesin fused to the Fc region of human IgG1 mediated sialic acid-dependent binding with a specificity similar to its mouse counterpart, preferring sialic acid in the alpha2,3 glycosidic linkage over the alpha2,6 linkage. By flow cytometry with peripheral blood leukocytes, recombinant sialoadhesin bound strongly to granulocytes with intermediate binding to monocytes, natural killer cells, B cells, and a subset of CD8 T cells. Using antibodies raised to the recombinant protein, sialoadhesin was immunoprecipitated from the THP-1 human monocytic cell line as an approximate 200-kd glycoprotein. The expression pattern of human sialoadhesin was found to be similar to that of the mouse receptor, being absent from monocytes and other peripheral blood leukocytes, but expressed strongly by tissue macrophages in the spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, liver, colon, and lungs. High expression was also found on inflammatory macrophages present in affected tissues from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Mäkinen T, Jussila L, Veikkola T, Karpanen T, Kettunen MI, Pulkkanen KJ, Kauppinen R, Jackson DG, Kubo H, Nishikawa S et al. 2001. Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3. Nat Med, 7 (2), pp. 199-205. | Show Abstract | Read more

The lymphatic vasculature transports extravasated tissue fluid, macromolecules and cells back into the blood circulation. Recent reports have focused on the molecular mechanisms regulating the lymphatic vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D have been shown to stimulate lymphangiogenesis and their receptor, VEGFR-3, has been linked to human hereditary lymphedema. Here we show that a soluble form of VEGFR-3 is a potent inhibitor of VEGF-C/VEGF-D signaling, and when expressed in the skin of transgenic mice, it inhibits fetal lymphangiogenesis and induces a regression of already formed lymphatic vessels, though the blood vasculature remains normal. Transgenic mice develop a lymphedema-like phenotype characterized by swelling of feet, edema and dermal fibrosis. They survive the neonatal period in spite of a virtually complete lack of lymphatic vessels in several tissues, and later show regeneration of the lymphatic vasculature, indicating that induction of lymphatic regeneration may also be possible in humans.

Stacker SA, Caesar C, Baldwin ME, Thornton GE, Williams RA, Prevo R, Jackson DG, Nishikawa S, Kubo H, Achen MG. 2001. VEGF-D promotes the metastatic spread of tumor cells via the lymphatics. Nat Med, 7 (2), pp. 186-191. | Show Abstract | Read more

Metastasis to local lymph nodes via the lymphatic vessels is a common step in the spread of solid tumors. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the spread of cancer by the lymphatics, we examined the ability of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D, a ligand for the lymphatic growth factor receptor VEGFR-3/Flt-4, to induce formation of lymphatics in a mouse tumor model. Staining with markers specific for lymphatic endothelium demonstrated that VEGF-D induced the formation of lymphatics within tumors. Moreover, expression of VEGF-D in tumor cells led to spread of the tumor to lymph nodes, whereas expression of VEGF, an angiogenic growth factor which activates VEGFR-2 but not VEGFR-3, did not. VEGF-D also promoted tumor angiogenesis and growth. Lymphatic spread induced by VEGF-D could be blocked with an antibody specific for VEGF-D. This study demonstrates that lymphatics can be established in solid tumors and implicates VEGF family members in determining the route of metastatic spread.

Nolan DP, Jackson DG, Biggs MJ, Brabazon ED, Pays A, Van Laethem F, Paturiaux-Hanocq F, Elliott JF, Voorheis HP, Pays E. 2000. Characterization of a novel alanine-rich protein located in surface microdomains in Trypanosoma brucei. J Biol Chem, 275 (6), pp. 4072-4080. | Show Abstract | Read more

Heterologous expression in COS cells followed by orientation-specific polymerase chain reaction to select and amplify cDNAs encoding surface proteins in Trypanosoma brucei resulted in the isolation of a cDNA ( approximately 1.4 kilobase) which encodes an acidic, alanine-rich polypeptide that is expressed only in bloodstream forms of the parasite and has been termed bloodstream stage alanine-rich protein (BARP). Analysis of the amino acid sequence predicted the presence of a typical NH(2)-terminal leader sequence as well as a COOH-terminal hydrophobic extension with the potential to be replaced by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. A search of existing protein sequences revealed partial homology between BARP and the major surface antigen of procyclic forms of Trypanosoma congolense. BARP migrated as a complex, heterogeneous series of bands on Western blots with an apparent molecular mass ( approximately 50-70 kDa) significantly higher than predicted from the amino acid sequence ( approximately 26 kDa). Confocal microscopy demonstrated that BARP was present in small discrete spots that were distributed over the entire cellular surface. Detergent extraction experiments revealed that BARP was recovered in the detergent-insoluble, glycolipid-enriched fraction. These data suggested that BARP may be sequestered in lipid rafts.

Jones M, Tussey L, Athanasou N, Jackson DG. 2000. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan isoforms of the CD44 hyaluronan receptor induced in human inflammatory macrophages can function as paracrine regulators of fibroblast growth factor action. J Biol Chem, 275 (11), pp. 7964-7974. | Show Abstract | Read more

The CD44 glycoprotein is expressed in multiple isoforms on a variety of cell types where it functions as a receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility. Recently, interest has centered on CD44 heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) isoforms because of their potential to sequester heparin-binding growth factors and chemokines. Expression of these isoforms on ectodermal cells has recently been shown to regulate limb morphogenesis via presentation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 4/FGF 8 while expression on tumor cells was shown to sequester hepatocyte growth factor and promote tumor dissemination. To date, however, CD44 HSPG expression in tissue macrophages and lymphocytes has not been adequately investigated, despite the fact these cells actively synthesize growth factors and chemokines and indirect evidence that monocyte CD44 sequesters macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta. Here we show primary human monocytes rather than lymphocytes express CD44 HSPGs, but only following in vitro differentiation to macrophages or activation with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1alpha or bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, we show these isoforms are preferentially modified with heparan rather than chondroitin sulfate, bind the macrophage-derived growth factors FGF-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor with varying affinities (K(d) 25-330 nM) and in the case of FGF-2, can stimulate productive binding to the high affinity tyrosine kinase FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1). In contrast, we find no evidence for significant binding to C-C chemokines. Last, we confirm by immunofluorescent antibody staining that inflamed synovial membrane macrophages express CD44 HSPGs and that expression is greatest in cells containing high FGF-2 levels. These results suggest a paracrine role for macrophage CD44 HSPG isoforms in the regulation of growth factor action during inflammation.

Clasper S, Vekemans S, Fiore M, Plebanski M, Wordsworth P, David G, Jackson DG. 1999. Inducible expression of the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-2 (fibroglycan) on human activated macrophages can regulate fibroblast growth factor action. J Biol Chem, 274 (34), pp. 24113-24123. | Show Abstract | Read more

Monocyte/macrophages play important roles in regulating tissue growth and angiogenesis through the controlled release of heparin-binding growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor, and heparin binding epidermal growth factor. The action of these potent growth mediators is known to be regulated by adsorption to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the surface and within the extracellular matrix of other neighboring cells, which respectively promote or restrict interactions with their signal-transducing receptors on target cells. Here we report on the nature of HSPGs inducibly expressed on the surface of macrophages that confer these cells with the capacity to regulate endogenous growth factor activity. We reveal that activated human macrophages express only a single major 48-kDa cell surface HSPG, syndecan-2 (fibroglycan) as the result of de novo RNA and protein synthesis. In addition, we demonstrate this macrophage HSPG selectively binds the macrophage-derived growth factors FGF-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin binding EGF and can present FGF-2 in a form that transactivates receptor-bearing BaF32 cells. These results define a novel and unique proteoglycan profile for macrophages and imply a key role for syndecan-2 in the delivery of sequestered growth factors by inflammatory macrophages for productive binding to their appropriate target cells in vivo.

Banerji S, Ni J, Wang SX, Clasper S, Su J, Tammi R, Jones M, Jackson DG. 1999. LYVE-1, a new homologue of the CD44 glycoprotein, is a lymph-specific receptor for hyaluronan. J Cell Biol, 144 (4), pp. 789-801. | Show Abstract | Read more

The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is an abundant component of skin and mesenchymal tissues where it facilitates cell migration during wound healing, inflammation, and embryonic morphogenesis. Both during normal tissue homeostasis and particularly after tissue injury, HA is mobilized from these sites through lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes where it is degraded before entering the circulation for rapid uptake by the liver. Currently, however, the identities of HA binding molecules which control this pathway are unknown. Here we describe the first such molecule, LYVE-1, which we have identified as a major receptor for HA on the lymph vessel wall. The deduced amino acid sequence of LYVE-1 predicts a 322-residue type I integral membrane polypeptide 41% similar to the CD44 HA receptor with a 212-residue extracellular domain containing a single Link module the prototypic HA binding domain of the Link protein superfamily. Like CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule binds both soluble and immobilized HA. However, unlike CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule colocalizes with HA on the luminal face of the lymph vessel wall and is completely absent from blood vessels. Hence, LYVE-1 is the first lymph-specific HA receptor to be characterized and is a uniquely powerful marker for lymph vessels themselves.

Banerji S, Day AJ, Kahmann JD, Jackson DG. 1998. Characterization of a functional hyaluronan-binding domain from the human CD44 molecule expressed in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif, 14 (3), pp. 371-381. | Show Abstract | Read more

The CD44 molecule is a widely distributed cell surface receptor for the extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan. The ligand-binding site which is located in the membrane distal portion of the molecule encompasses a region of approximately 100 amino acids termed the Link domain, a structural unit that is conserved among members of the Hyaladherin superfamily which includes cartilage link protein, aggrecan, and tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). In contrast to these other Hyaladherins, however, the ligand-binding domain of CD44 appears to extend beyond the Link domain to involve additional basic residues located toward the membrane proximal region. Furthermore, recent molecular modeling studies indicate that within the CD44 Link domain itself, the spatial arrangement of critical residues involved in HA binding is likely to differ significantly from the prototypic TSG-6 Link module. In order to obtain material to solve the CD44 solution structure we have developed an optimized method for the expression and purification of functionally active CD44 ectodomains encompassing both the Link module and the additional downstream HA-binding residues in Escherichia coli. Here we describe the details of the method which involves solubilization of recombinant CD44 from inclusion bodies in 8 M urea, followed by refolding and purification of intact monomers using size-exclusion and reverse-phase chromatography. We show the method yields CD44 molecules that (1) retain reactivity with a panel of conformation-sensitive antibodies, (2) possess similar hyaluronan-binding characteristics to authentically folded CD44 molecules expressed in eukaryotic cells, and (3) display one-dimensional NMR spectra that indicate the presence of a single conformational species. This method should enable sufficient amounts of functional CD44 Link module to be produced for comprehensive structural analyses by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.

Nolan DP, Jackson DG, Windle HJ, Pays A, Geuskens M, Michel A, Voorheis HP, Pays E. 1997. Characterization of a novel, stage-specific, invariant surface protein in Trypanosoma brucei containing an internal, serine-rich, repetitive motif. J Biol Chem, 272 (46), pp. 29212-29221. | Show Abstract | Read more

A new surface membrane protein, invariant surface glycoprotein termed ISG100, was identified in Trypanosoma brucei, using catalyzed surface, radioiodination of intact cells. This integral membrane glycoprotein was purified by a combination of detergent extraction, lectin-affinity, and ion-exchange chromatography followed by preparative SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein was expressed only in bloodstream forms of the parasite, was heavily N-glycosylated, and was present in different clonal variants of the same serodeme as well as in different serodemes. The gene for this protein was isolated by screening a cDNA expression library with antibodies against the purified protein followed by screening of a genomic library. The nucleotide sequence of the gene (4050 base pairs) predicted a highly reiterative polypeptide containing three distinct domains, a unique N-terminal domain of about 10 kDa containing three potential N-glycosylation sites, which was followed by a large internal domain consisting entirely of 72 consecutive copies of a serine-rich, 17-amino acid motif (approximately 113 kDa) and terminated with an apparent transmembrane spanning region of about 3.3 kDa. The internal repeat region of this gene (3672 base pairs) represents the largest reiterative coding sequence to be fully characterized in any species of trypanosome. There was no significant homology with other known proteins, and overall the predicted protein was extremely hydrophobic. Unlike the genes for other surface proteins, the gene encoding ISG100 was present as a single copy. Although present in the flagellar pocket, ISG100 was predominantly associated with components of the pathways for endo/exocytosis, such as intracellular vesicles located in the proximity of the pocket as well a large, electron-lucent perinuclear digestive vacuole.

Jackson DG. 1997. Human leucocyte heparan sulphate proteoglycans and their roles in inflammation. Biochem Soc Trans, 25 (1), pp. 220-224. | Read more

Jackson DG, Jones M, Plebanski M, Bowman S. 1996. Inducible expression of CD44 heparan sulphate proteoglycan splice variants on human monocytes during inflammation. TISSUE ANTIGENS, 48 (4-II), pp. AS205-AS205.

Bannerji S, Tussey LG, Jackson DG. 1996. Specificity of 6th Workshop CD44 panel antibodies for alternatively spliced exons and their effects on lymphocyte activation and hyaluronan binding. TISSUE ANTIGENS, 48 (4-II), pp. AS210-AS210.

Murray N, Jackson D, Rosenberg W. 1996. CD44 V3 and V6 expression on colonic epithelial cells is induced by interleukin 4. GASTROENTEROLOGY, 110 (4), pp. A975-A975.

Bennett KL, Modrell B, Greenfield B, Bartolazzi A, Stamenkovic I, Peach R, Jackson DG, Spring F, Aruffo A. 1995. Regulation of CD44 binding to hyaluronan by glycosylation of variably spliced exons. J Cell Biol, 131 (6 Pt 1), pp. 1623-1633. | Show Abstract | Read more

The hyaluronan (HA)-binding function (lectin function) of the leukocyte homing receptor, CD44, is tightly regulated. Herein we address possible mechanisms that regulate CD44 isoform-specific HA binding. Binding studies with melanoma transfectants expressing CD44H, CD44E, or with soluble immunoglobulin fusions of CD44H and CD44E (CD44H-Rg, CD44E-Rg) showed that although both CD44 isoforms can bind HA, CD44H binds HA more efficiently than CD44E. Using CD44-Rg fusion proteins we show that the variably spliced exons in CD44E, V8-V10, specifically reduce the lectin function of CD44, while replacement of V8-V10 by an ICAM-1 immunoglobulin domain restores binding to a level comparable to that of CD44H. Conversely, CD44 bound HA very weakly when exons V8-V10 were replaced with a CD34 mucin domain, which is heavily modified by O-linked glycans. Production of CD44E-Rg or incubation of CD44E-expressing transfectants in the presence of an O-linked glycosylation inhibitor restored HA binding to CD44H-Rg and to cell surface CD44H levels, respectively. We conclude that differential splicing provides a regulatory mechanism for CD44 lectin function and that this effect is due in part to O-linked carbohydrate moieties which are added to the Ser/Thr rich regions encoded by the variably spliced CD44 exons. Alternative splicing resulting in changes in protein glycosylation provide a novel mechanism for the regulation of lectin activity.

Screaton GR, Cáceres JF, Mayeda A, Bell MV, Plebanski M, Jackson DG, Bell JI, Krainer AR. 1995. Identification and characterization of three members of the human SR family of pre-mRNA splicing factors. EMBO J, 14 (17), pp. 4336-4349. | Show Abstract

SR proteins have a characteristic C-terminal Ser/Arg-rich repeat (RS domain) of variable length and constitute a family of highly conserved nuclear phosphoproteins that can function as both essential and alternative pre-mRNA splicing factors. We have cloned a cDNA encoding a novel human SR protein designated SRp30c, which has an unusually short RS domain. We also cloned cDNAs encoding the human homologues of Drosophila SRp55/B52 and rat SRp40/HRS. Recombinant proteins expressed from these cDNAs are active in constitutive splicing, as shown by their ability to complement a HeLa cell S100 extract deficient in SR proteins. Additional cDNA clones reflect extensive alternative splicing of SRp40 and SRp55 pre-mRNAs. The predicted protein isoforms lack the C-terminal RS domain and might be involved in feedback regulatory loops. The ability of human SRp30c, SRp40 and SRp55 to modulate alternative splicing in vivo was compared with that of other SR proteins using a transient contransfection assay. The overexpression of individual SR proteins in HeLa cells affected the choice of alternative 5' splice sites of adenovirus E1A and/or human beta-thalassemia reporters. The resulting splicing patterns were characteristic for each SR protein. Consistent with the postulated importance of SR proteins in alternative splicing in vivo, we demonstrate complex changes in the levels of mRNAs encoding the above SR proteins upon T cell activation, concomitant with changes in the expression of alternatively spliced isoforms of CD44 and CD45.

Rosenberg WM, Prince C, Kaklamanis L, Fox SB, Jackson DG, Simmons DL, Chapman RW, Trowell JM, Jewell DP, Bell JI. 1995. Increased expression of CD44v6 and CD44v3 in ulcerative colitis but not colonic Crohn's disease. Lancet, 345 (8959), pp. 1205-1209. | Show Abstract | Read more

Immune mechanisms, possibly involving cell-surface molecules such as CD44, have been invoked to explain the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We used monoclonal antibodies against epitopes encoded within the variable region of CD44 to investigate CD44 isoform expression in colon, small intestine, and liver in patients with various intestinal disorders and in controls. Biopsy samples from patients with ulcerative colitis showed significantly increased epithelial expression of CD44 isoforms containing the v6 and v3 epitopes, detected with antibodies 2F10 and 3G5, respectively. CD44v6 was detected on colonic crypt epithelial cells in 23 of 25 ulcerative colitis samples compared with 3 of 18 colonic Crohn's disease samples (p = 3.0 x 10(-6); odds ratio 57.5 [95% CI 6.83-702]) and 3 of 52 controls (22 normal colon, 10 infective colitis, 2 radiation colitis, and 18 colonic Crohn's disease; p < 1 x 10(-8); odds ratio 199 [25.5-2294]). No significant expression of CD44v6, CD44v3, or CD44v8/9 was found in samples of normal proximal colon from 4 patients with distal ulcerative colitis, whereas samples from the affected area showed staining for CD44v6 and CD44v3. No expression of CD44 variants was found in 15 samples of normal small intestine, 11 small-bowel pouchitis, 8 coeliac disease, 3 small-bowel Crohn's disease, 6 normal liver, 6 primary biliary cirrhosis, or 9 primary sclerosing cholangitis. The high intensity of CD44v6 and v3 epitope expression on crypt epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis suggests that CD44 isoforms may have an important role in ulcerative colitis. Their detection could have diagnostic potential in differentiating ulcerative colitis from other forms of colonic inflammation including Crohn's disease.

Bartolazzi A, Jackson D, Bennett K, Aruffo A, Dickinson R, Shields J, Whittle N, Stamenkovic I. 1995. Regulation of growth and dissemination of a human lymphoma by CD44 splice variants. J Cell Sci, 108 ( Pt 4) pp. 1723-1733. | Show Abstract

CD44 is a polymorphic cell surface glycoprotein, currently proposed to be the principal cell surface receptor for hyaluronan. However, different isoforms of CD44, expressed in human lymphoid tumor cells, appear to have distinct effects on the ability of the cells to attach to hyaluronan-coated surfaces and on their capacity to form tumors in vivo. In the present study, we address the mechanisms that may regulate CD44 isoform-dependent adhesion to hyaluronan. We use a human Burkitt lymphoma, stably transfected with six different alternatively spliced human CD44 isoforms, to determine their potential hyaluronan binding and tumor growth promoting roles. We show that transfectants expressing CD44 splice variants that contain variable exons 6-10, 7-10 and 8-10 adhere to hyaluronan-coated surfaces weakly and that corresponding tumor formation in vivo is delayed with respect to CD44-negative parental cell-derived tumors. Abundant shedding of these three isoforms may play a significant role in determining the rate of tumor development. Transfectants expressing variable exon 3, on the other hand, fail to display CD44-mediated adhesion to hyaluronan, but form bone marrow tumors rapidly following intravenous injection. These observations suggest that different mechanisms regulate CD44-mediated adhesion and tumor growth, and provide evidence that expression of exon v3 may confer novel ligand-binding properties.

ROSENBERG W, PRINCE C, KAKLAMANIS L, JACKSON D, SIMMONS D, JEWELL D, CHAPMAN R, TROWELL J, BELL J. 1995. ULCERATIVE-COLITIS IS DIFFERENTIATED FROM OTHER COLONIC INFLAMMATION BY CD44-V3 AND CD44-V6 EXPRESSION GASTROENTEROLOGY, 108 (4), pp. A906-A906.

Bennett KL, Jackson DG, Simon JC, Tanczos E, Peach R, Modrell B, Stamenkovic I, Plowman G, Aruffo A. 1995. CD44 isoforms containing exon V3 are responsible for the presentation of heparin-binding growth factor. J Cell Biol, 128 (4), pp. 687-698. | Show Abstract | Read more

Glycosaminoglycan-modified isoforms of CD44 have been implicated in growth factor presentation at sites of inflammation. In the present study we show that COS cell transfectants expressing CD44 isoforms containing the alternatively spliced exon V3 are modified with heparan sulfate (HS). Binding studies with three HS-binding growth factors, basic-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), and amphiregulin, showed that the HS-modified CD44 isoforms are able to bind to b-FGF and HB-EGF, but not AR. b-FGF and HB-EGF binding to HS-modified CD44 was eliminated by pretreating the protein with heparitinase or by blocking with free heparin. HS-modified CD44 immunoprecipitated from keratinocytes, which express a CD44 isoform containing V3, also bound to b-FGF. We examined whether HS-modified CD44 isoforms were expressed by activated endothelial cells where they might present HS-binding growth factors to leukocytes during an inflammatory response. PCR and antibody-binding studies showed that activated cultured endothelial cells only express the CD44H isoform which does not contain any of the variably spliced exons including V3. Immunohistological studies with antibodies directed to CD44 extracellular domains encoded by the variably spliced exons showed that vascular endothelial cells in inflamed skin tissue sections do not express CD44 spliced variants. Keratinocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells in the same specimens were found to express variably spliced CD44. 35SO4(-2)-labeling experiments demonstrated that activated cultured endothelial cells do not express detectable levels of chondroitin sulfate or HS-modified CD44. Our results suggest that one of the functions of CD44 isoforms expressing V3 is to bind and present a subset of HS-binding proteins. Furthermore, it is probable that HS-modified CD44 is involved in the presentation of HS-binding proteins by keratinocytes in inflamed skin. However, our data suggests that CD44 is not likely to be the proteoglycan principally involved in presenting HS-binding growth factors to leukocytes on the vascular cell wall.

Gross N, Beck D, Beretta C, Jackson D, Perruisseau G. 1995. CD44 expression and modulation on human neuroblastoma tumours and cell lines. Eur J Cancer, 31A (4), pp. 471-475. | Show Abstract | Read more

The human CD44 cell surface glycoprotein has been involved in a variety of functions including lymphocyte homing, extracellular cell matrix attachment and tumour metastasis. A large family of variants or isoforms, generated by alternative splicing of a single gene, has been reported to be involved in the malignant process, by conferring metastatic potential to non-metastatic cells. Neuroblastoma is a tumour characterised by an aggressive and metastatic behaviour in advanced stages, with amplification of the MYCN protooncogene. In this report, we show that the CD44 standard molecule was highly expressed in the majority of tumours of stages 1-3, in all stage 4s and ganglioneuromas, but only in a subset of stage 4 tumours. A lack of CD44 expression was observed in all MYCN amplified stage 4 tumours, thus demonstrating a highly significant inverse relationship between MYCN amplification and CD44 expression in neuroblastoma. In addition, the expression of 4 different CD44 isoforms was measured on all specimens and was always found to be negative. Using neuroblastoma cell lines and MYCN expressing transfectants, we show that CD44 expression by neuroblastoma cell lines is not directly related to MYCN amplification, but is associated to the stage of differentiation or lineage, and to the tumorigenic properties of the cells. In addition, CD44 expression can be upmodulated parallel to differentiation or maturation as induced by retinoic acid, bromodeoxyuridine or phorbol ester. In contrast, cytokines such as IFN gamma, TNF alpha, or growth factors such as bFGF, SCF and TGF beta were ineffective in modulating CD44 expression.

Jackson DG, Bell JI, Dickinson R, Timans J, Shields J, Whittle N. 1995. Proteoglycan forms of the lymphocyte homing receptor CD44 are alternatively spliced variants containing the v3 exon. J Cell Biol, 128 (4), pp. 673-685. | Show Abstract | Read more

The CD44 cell surface glycoprotein is expressed on a broad range of different tissues as multiple isoforms containing from one to ten alternatively spliced exons v1-v10 inserted within the extracellular domain. Differential glycosylation generates still further variability, yielding both N- and O-glycan-modified forms of CD44 in addition to proteoglycan-like variants containing chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate. These high molecular mass proteoglycan-like variants, previously identified in lymphocytes, melanomas, and keratinocytes have been implicated in cell-matrix adhesion, cell motility, and invasiveness. More recently, monocyte CD44 molecules presumed to carry glycosaminoglycan chains were shown to bind the chemokine MIP-1 beta (Tanaka, Y.,D. H. Adams, S. Hubscher, H. Hirano, U. Siebenlist, and S. Shaw. 1993. Nature (Lond). 361:79-82.) raising the intriguing possibility that proteoglycan-like CD44 variants might play a role in regulating inflammatory responses. Here we have investigated the molecular identity of these proteoglycan-like CD44 variants by generating a panel of recombinant CD44 isoforms using a novel cassette cloning strategy. We show that both chondroitin and heparan sulphate modifications are associated specifically with isoforms (CD44v3-10 and CD44v3,8-10) containing the v3 alternative exon which encodes a consensus motif SGXG for GAG addition. Other isoforms (CD44v10, CD44v8-10, CD44v7-10, and CD44v6-10) are shown to lack these GAG chains but to carry extensive O-glycan modifications, most likely within the mucin-like alternative exon inserts. We also demonstrate that the majority of endogenous GAG-modified CD44 isoforms present in epithelial cells constitute v3 isoforms thus establishing that in these cells the majority of proteoglycan-like CD44 variants are generated by alternative splicing. Finally we present evidence using transfected B lymphoma cells that the GAG-modified CD44 isoforms CD44v3-10 and CD44v3,8-10, unlike CD44H, bind only weakly to hyaluronan. Together with the demonstration in the accompanying paper (Bennett, K., D. G. Jackson, J.C. Simon, E. Tanczos, R. Peach, B. Modrell, I. Stamenkovic, G. Plowman, and A. Aruffo. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 128:687-698.), that CD44 molecules containing the v3 exon bind growth factors, these results highlight a new and potentially important role for CD44 alternative splicing in the control of cell-surface proteoglycan expression.

Zarn JA, Jackson DG, Bell MV, Jones T, Weber E, Sheer D, Waibel R, Stahel RA. 1995. The small cell lung cancer antigen cluster-4 and the leukocyte antigen CD24 are allelic isoforms of the same gene (CD24) on chromosome band 6q21. Cytogenet Cell Genet, 70 (1-2), pp. 119-125. | Show Abstract | Read more

Cluster-4 and CD24 cDNA's have recently been cloned from the small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell line SW2 and from the erythroleukemia cell line K562, respectively. The only difference in the coding sequence, between cluster-4 and CD24 antigens is the substitution of a single base pair leading to a substitution of Val by Ala near the putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchorage sites of the mature protein. Here we demonstrate that the nucleotide substitution which distinguishes the cluster-4 and CD24 antigen genes is due to an allelic polymorphism on chromosome band 6q21. In addition, we identified by Southern blotting and PCR of DNA from somatic human x hamster hybrid cell lines homologues of cluster-4/CD24 on the Y chromosome and chromosome 15. We suggest, however, that the gene on 6q21 is the active locus since the mRNA of cell lines always represents the allelic variants found on chromosome 6. The distribution pattern of this allelic polymorphism in SCLC cell lines and leukocytes of healthy donors did not reveal any obvious relationship with disease. However, it is noteworthy that homozygosity for cluster-4 was found in only one case whereas heterozygosity and homozygosity for CD24 both contribute up to 50% of the samples examined.

Gross N, Beretta C, Peruisseau G, Jackson D, Simmons D, Beck D. 1994. CD44H expression by human neuroblastoma cells: relation to MYCN amplification and lineage differentiation. Cancer Res, 54 (15), pp. 4238-4242. | Show Abstract

The human CD44 cell surface glycoprotein has been involved in a variety of functions including lymphocyte homing, extracellular cell matrix attachment, and tumor metastasis. Due to the alternative splicing of the single gene, a large family of different variants or isoforms is generated. Several reports have indicated an up-regulation of CD44 variant (v) isoforms in malignant process, conferring metastatic potential to non-metastatic cells. Neuroblastoma is a tumor characterized by an aggressive and metastatic behavior in advanced stages with amplification of the MYCN protooncogene. In this report we show that the CD44 standard molecule is highly expressed in 100% of stage I-III, IVs neuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas but only in a subset of stage IV tumors. In contrast, no expression of CD44 was detected on MYCN amplified stage IV tumors, thus demonstrating a highly significant negative relationship between MYCN amplification and CD44 expression in neuroblastoma. The expression of CD44 on neuroblastoma cultured cell lines was not shown to be related to MYCN amplification but rather linked to the S-type, schwann/glial differentiation lineage. Immunochemical analysis of tumor samples with anti-CD44v3 and -v6 antibodies and Northern blot analysis of mRNA from cell lines with probes spanning exons 4-10 did not reveal any expression of splice variants on neuroblastomas of all stages and cell lines, thus ruling out a major role of these isoforms in neuroblastoma progression and metastasis.

Hirano H, Screaton GR, Bell MV, Jackson DG, Bell JI, Hodes RJ. 1994. CD44 isoform expression mediated by alternative splicing: tissue-specific regulation in mice. Int Immunol, 6 (1), pp. 49-59. | Show Abstract | Read more

CD44 is a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein which shows heterogeneity in molecular expression as a result of post-translational modification as well as alternative splicing of CD44 mRNA. Functional studies have indicated that CD44 plays a role as an adhesion molecule and that different CD44-expressing cells differ in their capacities for CD44-dependent ligand binding. These observations have raised the possibility that structural modifications of CD44, including those resulting from alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms, are involved in the functional heterogeneity of CD44. To assess the expression of CD44 isoforms in the mouse, we examined CD44 cDNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Southern blotting of PCR products with a CD44 cDNA probe or with internal oligonucleotides revealed the expression in mouse tumor cell lines and normal tissues of multiple CD44 mRNA products which are larger than that observed in the absence of variable exon expression. Interestingly, different mouse tissues, including lymphoid cells, showed unique patterns of alternative CD44 mRNA in Southern blotting analysis. The use of exon-specific primers allowed detection of multiple alternatively spliced mRNA species involving expression of at least seven variable exons. Cloning and sequencing of these PCR products revealed sequence identity with recently identified genomic CD44 sequences and confirmed that the PCR products correspond to mature mRNA expressing alternatively spliced CD44 exons. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the mouse expresses multiple variably spliced CD44 isoforms and that expression is regulated in a tissue- and cell-type specific manner.

Jackson DG, Schenker T, Waibel R, Bell JI, Stahel RA. 1994. Expression of alternatively spliced forms of the CD44 extracellular-matrix receptor on human lung carcinomas. Int J Cancer Suppl, 8 pp. 110-115. | Show Abstract

Expression of isoforms of the CD44 hyaluronan receptor/lymph-node endothelial receptor by human tumour cells is thought to play a role in tumour growth and metastasis. These isoforms which vary in the length of the extracellular domain are generated by differential RNA splicing that involves the 10 alternative exons (v1 to v10) encoding the membrane proximal region of the molecule. Several tumours have been shown to over-express CD44 containing the v6 exon, and this, together with other evidence, has led to the suggestion that v6 may play a causative role in tumour metastasis. In this report we have compared the expression of CD44 isoforms between different lung tumour lines, including SCLC, squamous-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and mesothelioma, using both RT-PCR and fluorescent antibody staining with a panel of CD44 exon-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Our results show large differences in vCD44 expression between individual tumour lines. Little or no vCD44 containing the metastasis-associated v6 exon was detected in most tumours, including the highly metastatic SCLC lines. Indeed, the SCLC lines and some squamous-cell carcinomas contained only very low levels of either vCD44 or CD44H, indicating that CD44 expression may not always correlate with tumour development or dissemination. One of the squamous-cell carcinomas studied (HOTZ) was found to express a complex mixture of CD44 splice variants similar to the immortalized normal bronchial epithelial line BEAS-2B. Cloning and sequencing of vCD44 from the HOTZ cell line yielded several splice variants that have also been identified on leukaemic cells, normal keratinocytes and activated peripheral-blood lymphocytes.

Fox SB, Fawcett J, Jackson DG, Collins I, Gatter KC, Harris AL, Gearing A, Simmons DL. 1994. Normal human tissues, in addition to some tumors, express multiple different CD44 isoforms. Cancer Res, 54 (16), pp. 4539-4546. | Show Abstract

At least 20 different isoforms of the human CD44 lymphocyte-homing receptor/hyaluronan receptor have been described to date that arise from the differential splicing of up to 10 alternative exons (termed v1-v10) encoding the membrane-proximal extracellular domain. Although numerous analyses at the mRNA level have indicated tissue-specific expression of CD44 variants, few analyses have been performed at the protein level because of limited availability of suitable monoclonal antibodies. Recently, however, exon-specific monoclonal antibodies have been generated using bacterial fusion proteins, and these have been reported to detect high levels of vCD44 containing the v6 exon on human tumors. Together with earlier evidence linking this particular exon with tumor metastasis in the rat, these latter experiments have led to the interpretation that v6 splice variants play a causative role in tumor dissemination. In this paper we describe the use of a new and comprehensive panel of CD44 exon-specific monoclonal antibodies generated against a recombinant CD44(v3-10)-immunoglobulin chimera to study vCD44 expression in a large number of normal and neoplastic tissues. We show that the expression of vCD44 varies greatly among different human tumors and that some express either very low levels of vCD44 or no CD44 at all. Furthermore, we demonstrate that expression is not limited to isoforms containing the v6 exon but includes variants carrying v3, v4/5, and v8/9. Additionally, normal epithelial tissues are shown to express considerable levels of these same vCD44 isoforms. Such results argue against a ubiquitous role for vCD44 isoforms in promoting tumor growth and metastasis.

Summerhill RJ, Jackson DG, Galione A. 1993. Human lymphocyte antigen CD38 catalyzes the production of cyclic ADP-ribose. FEBS Lett, 335 (2), pp. 231-233. | Show Abstract | Read more

The human lymphocyte antigen CD38 has been shown to share sequence homology with ADP-ribosyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of NAD+ to cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a potent Ca(2+)-mobilizing agent. In this study COS1 cells from African Green Monkey kidney were transiently transfected with CD38 cDNA, inducing expression of authentic CD38 on the cell surface. We demonstrate that CD38 expressed in this manner can convert NAD+ to cADPR in the extracellular medium as assessed by Ca2+ release from sea-urchin egg microsomes.

Fox SB, Gatter KC, Jackson DG, Screaton GR, Bell MV, Bell JI, Harris AL, Simmons D, Fawcett J. 1993. CD44 and cancer screening. Lancet, 342 (8870), pp. 548-549. | Read more

Screaton GR, Bell MV, Bell JI, Jackson DG. 1993. The identification of a new alternative exon with highly restricted tissue expression in transcripts encoding the mouse Pgp-1 (CD44) homing receptor. Comparison of all 10 variable exons between mouse, human, and rat. J Biol Chem, 268 (17), pp. 12235-12238. | Show Abstract

The human CD44 cell surface glycoprotein family which has been implicated in lymphocyte homing, tumor metastasis, and extracellular matrix attachment consists of a large number of related isoforms that derive from the differential splicing of a single CD44 gene transcript. Recent mapping of the CD44 locus in man indicated the presence of at least nine alternative exons within the region of the gene encoding the variable membrane proximal extracellular domain. Here we report the identification of a 10th alternative exon (termed V1) in the mouse, human, and rat CD44 genes. We demonstrate tissue-specific patterns of expression for transcripts containing exons V1-V10 in the mouse and a highly restricted usage of exon V1 in transcripts from mouse gastric tissue. Close sequence homology between exons V1-V10 from mouse rat and human points to a specific functional role rather than a purely structural role for the membrane proximal extracellular domain of the CD44 molecule.

Daish A, Starling GC, McKenzie JL, Nimmo JC, Jackson DG, Hart DN. 1993. Expression of the CMRF-35 antigen, a new member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, is differentially regulated on leucocytes. Immunology, 79 (1), pp. 55-63. | Show Abstract

A new monoclonal antibody, CMRF-35, has been generated that recognized a 224 amino acid cell surface protein which is a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. The antibody, raised against large granular lymphocytes (LGL), stains LGL, monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes but not platelets or erythrocytes. In addition, a subset of peripheral blood T lymphocytes (26.6 +/- 13.4% CD5+ cells) and B lymphocytes (13.7 +/- 6.8% CD20+ cells) stained with CMRF-35 but tonsil T and B cells were essentially negative. Expression of the CMRF-35 antigen (Ag) on different leucocyte populations was markedly influenced by stimulation of the cells with mitogens and cytokines. Activation of peripheral blood T cells with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore (CaI) led to a decrease in the proportion of CMRF-35+ T lymphocytes. In contrast, PHA activation of tonsil T lymphocytes resulted in an increase in CMRF-35 Ag expression (47.1 +/- 1.5% CD5 cells at 6 days). An increase in CMRF-35 Ag was also seen on phorbol ester and CaI-activated tonsil B cells. No change in CMRF-35 expression on natural killer (NK) cells occurred following activation with interleukin-2 (IL-2) but the CMRF-35 Ag was down-regulated following Fc receptor stimulation. A moderate increase in CMRF-35 expression occurred during monocyte-macrophage differentiation and the expression of the Ag on monocytes was differentially regulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). This regulation of the CMRF-35 Ag on the leucocyte surface suggests that the molecule has an important function common to diverse leucocyte types.

Jackson DG, Screaton GR, Bell MV, Bell JI. 1993. CD44 and cancer. Lancet, 341 (8839), pp. 252-253. | Read more

BELL M, SCREATON G, JACKSON D, BELL J. 1993. THE GENOMIC ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN CD44 GENE JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY, pp. 332-332.

JACKSON D, SCREATON G, BELL M, BELL J. 1993. THE STRUCTURE OF THE GENE ENCODING THE ALTERNATIVELY SPLICED CD44 GLYCOPROTEIN JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY, pp. 349-349.

Jackson DG, Smith DK, Luo C, Elliott JF. 1993. Cloning of a novel surface antigen from the insect stages of Trypanosoma brucei by expression in COS cells. J Biol Chem, 268 (3), pp. 1894-1900. | Show Abstract

Trypanosoma brucei cDNA libraries constructed in the vector pCDM8 were screened selectively for insect (procyclic) stage surface antigen cDNAs by transient expression in mammalian COS-7 fibroblasts and "panning" with a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. This strategy yielded two surface antigen cDNAs termed PSSA-1 and PSSA-2. The PSSA-1 cDNA encoded an isotype of procyclin, the major phosphatidylinositol-linked stage-specific glycoprotein antigen of the tsetse fly infective forms of T. brucei. The PSSA-2 cDNA encoded a new and previously unidentified stage-specific surface antigen with the features of a typical transmembrane glycoprotein but with an unusual cytoplasmic tail composed of a proline-rich tandem repeat. Fluorescent antibody staining of PSSA-1 transfected COS cells with a panel of procyclin-specific monoclonal antibodies confirmed that the protein was located on the outer surface of the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the antigen on COS cells was insensitive to treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C suggesting that the inositol of the glycosylinositol phospholipid-lipid anchor contained the same fatty acyl modification reported recently for the procyclin molecule in cultured procyclic trypanosomes. In contrast the PSSA-2 antigen on COS cells was stained very weakly by whole parasite antisera. Northern blot hybridization revealed that the PSSA-2 antigen was encoded by a single 1.7-kilobase transcript which was present in parasites from the insect procyclic stage of the life cycle but not from the animal bloodstream stage. Southern blot hybridization analysis of DNA from procyclic stage trypanosomes indicated that the gene for PSSA-2 may be present in more than one copy in procyclic trypanosomes.

Screaton GR, Bell MV, Jackson DG, Cornelis FB, Gerth U, Bell JI. 1992. Genomic structure of DNA encoding the lymphocyte homing receptor CD44 reveals at least 12 alternatively spliced exons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89 (24), pp. 12160-12164. | Show Abstract | Read more

The CD44 molecule is known to display extensive size heterogeneity, which has been attributed both to alternative splicing and to differential glycosylation within the extracellular domain. Although the presence of several alternative exons has been partly inferred from cDNA sequencing, the precise intron-exon organization of the CD44 gene has not been described to date to our knowledge. In the present study we describe the structure of the human CD44 gene, which contains at least 19 exons spanning some 50 kilobases of DNA. We have identified 10 alternatively spliced exons within the extracellular domain, including 1 exon that has not been previously reported. In addition to the inclusion or exclusion of whole exons, more diversity is generated through the utilization of internal splice donor and acceptor sites within 2 of the individual exons. The variation previously reported for the cytoplasmic domain is shown to result from the alternative splicing of 2 exons. The genomic structure of CD44 reveals a remarkable degree of complexity, and we confirm the role of alternative splicing as the basis of the structural and functional diversity seen in the CD44 molecule.

Jackson D, Waibel R, Weber E, Bell J, Stahel RA. 1992. CD24, a signal-transducing molecule expressed on human B cells, is a major surface antigen on small cell lung carcinomas. Cancer Res, 52 (19), pp. 5264-5270. | Show Abstract

Cell lines derived from human small cell carcinoma of the lung express high levels of a surface polypeptide termed the cluster-w4 antigen, which was previously identified as a potential target for toxin-based immunotherapy of lung cancer. We have cloned a complementary DNA encoding the cluster-w4 antigen from COS-1 fibroblasts transfected with a SW2 small cell carcinoma library, by panning with a mixture of the cluster-w4-specific monoclonal antibodies SWA11, SWA21, and SWA22. The sequence of the cluster-w4 complementary DNA encodes an unusually short (80-amino acid) protein identical to that recently reported for the leukocyte activation molecule CD24 except for a single valine-alanine substitution due to a single-base polymorphism within the region of the gene coding for the extracellular domain. Biochemical analyses of the cloned cluster-w4 antigen confirmed both the presence of the phosphatidylinositol tail and the extensive glycosylation reported for the CD24 molecule. Furthermore, the cloned cluster-w4 antigen expressed on COS cells was shown to react with a comprehensive panel of CD24-specific monoclonal antibodies, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence staining. Northern blot hybridization indicated the presence of several transcript sizes for the cluster-w4 antigen that were greatly overexpressed in small cell carcinoma cell lines, compared with normal hemopoietic cells and CD24-positive cell lines. Southern blot hybridization of restriction digests of genomic DNA identified a complex pattern of bands consistent with either a complex gene structure containing many exons or the presence of a family of closely related genes.

Jackson DG, Buckley J, Bell JI. 1992. Multiple variants of the human lymphocyte homing receptor CD44 generated by insertions at a single site in the extracellular domain. J Biol Chem, 267 (7), pp. 4732-4739. | Show Abstract

The human CD44 cell-surface glycoprotein participates in a wide variety of cell-cell interactions including lymphocyte homing and tumor metastasis. The CD44 antigen is known to display extensive size heterogeneity when compared between different tissue sources although the structural basis for this variation is not yet clear. Recently, two further isotypes in addition to the basic hemopoietic form of the CD44 antigen have been cloned and sequenced and these have been found to contain all or part of a 200-400-base pair insert within the extracellular domain, suggesting that the characteristic heterogeneity in the molecule may be generated by a mechanism of alternative splicing. We have obtained further evidence for alternative splicing, and we report here the cloning and sequencing of six different CD44 sequence variants from a variety of cell lines using a combination of expression cloning and the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison of these variants indicates that each is probably assembled by the insertion of five different exon units in tandem into a discrete site within the membrane proximal region of the extracellular domain. One of the variants contains an exon that shares extensive amino acid sequence homology with a recently described rat CD44 variant that mediates tumor metastasis. Another variant contains a new exon that encodes a tandem repeat of the consensus sequence SG for covalent modification with chondroitin sulfate and is expressed predominantly on mammary tumors. We suggest that a mechanism of alternative exon splicing generates much of the observed structural heterogeneity of CD44 and that the particular set of CD44 variants expressed in a single cell may represent a precise postal code directing the final destination of migrating cells and metastatic tumors.

Jackson DG, Hart DN, Starling G, Bell JI. 1992. Molecular cloning of a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily homologous to the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor. Eur J Immunol, 22 (5), pp. 1157-1163. | Show Abstract | Read more

The CMRF35 monoclonal antibody recognizes a cell membrane antigen present on the surface of monocytes, neutrophils, a proportion of peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes and lymphocytic cell lines. Initial studies with CMRF35 suggested an unusual pattern of serological reactivity which did not correspond to any of the known leukocyte differentiation antigen clusters. We describe here the cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding the CMRF35 antigen by means of expression in COS cells and immunoselection with the CMRF35 monoclonal antibody. The cDNA encodes a novel integral membrane glycoprotein of 224 amino acids that represents a new member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene superfamily. The molecule comprises (a) a single extracellular Ig variable domain remarkably similar to the Fc receptor for polymeric IgA and IgM, (b) a membrane-proximal domain containing a high proportion of proline, serine and threonine residues that was predicted to be heavily O-glycosylated, (c) an unusual transmembrane anchor that contained a glutamic acid and a proline residue and (d) a short cytoplasmic tail. Transcripts encoding the CMRF35 protein were detected in early monocytic cell lines, in peripheral blood T cells and in some B lymphoblastoid cell lines, confirming the results of immunocytological staining. However, the level of CMRF35 expression on peripheral blood T cells was shown to decrease in response to mitogenic stimulation. The likelihood that the CMRF35 antigen shares a common evolutionary ancestor with the poly Ig Fc receptor is discussed.

Jackson DG, Voorheis HP. 1990. Changes in the pattern of cell surface proteins during transformation of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei in vitro. Biochem Soc Trans, 18 (5), pp. 1032-1033. | Read more

Jackson DG, Bell JI. 1990. Isolation of a cDNA encoding the human CD38 (T10) molecule, a cell surface glycoprotein with an unusual discontinuous pattern of expression during lymphocyte differentiation. J Immunol, 144 (7), pp. 2811-2815. | Show Abstract

A cDNA clone encoding the human lymphocyte differentiation Ag CD38 was isolated from a mixture of four different lymphocyte CDNA libraries expressed transiently in COS cells and screened by panning with mAb. Transfected COS cells expressed a surface protein of Mr 46,000 that was similar to the native CD38 molecule expressed on the B cell line Daudi and the T cell leukemia HPB-ALL and which was recognized by each of the CD38 specific mAb HIT-2, T16, T168, HB7, 5D2, ICO-18, and ICO-20. The CD38 cDNA sequence predicts an unusual 30-kDa polypeptide with a short N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, and a carboxyl-terminal extracellular domain carrying the four potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The absence of significant homology with other known surface Ag including members of the Ig superfamily ruled out the possibility that CD38 was the human homologue of the murine Qa2 molecule as has been suggested previously. PvuII digests of human genomic DNA revealed a polymorphism linked to the CD38 gene.

Banerji S, Lawrance W, Metcalfe C, Briggs DC, Yamauchi A, Dushek O, van der Merwe PA, Day AJ, Jackson DG. 2016. Homodimerization of the Lymph Vessel Endothelial Receptor LYVE-1 through a Redox-labile Disulfide Is Critical for Hyaluronan Binding in Lymphatic Endothelium. J Biol Chem, 291 (48), pp. 25004-25018. | Show Abstract | Read more

The lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor LYVE-1 is implicated in the uptake of hyaluronan (HA) and trafficking of leukocytes to draining lymph nodes. Yet LYVE-1 has only weak affinity for hyaluronan and depends on receptor clustering and higher order ligand organization for durable binding in lymphatic endothelium. An unusual feature of LYVE-1 not found in other HA receptors is the potential to form disulfide-linked homodimers. However, their influence on function has not been investigated. Here we show LYVE-1 homodimers are the predominant configuration in lymphatic endothelium in vitro and in vivo, and formation solely requires the unpaired cysteine residue Cys-201 within the membrane-proximal domain, yielding a 15-fold higher HA binding affinity and an ∼67-fold slower off-rate than the monomer. Moreover, we show non-dimerizing LYVE-1 mutants fail to bind HA even when expressed at high densities in lymphatic endothelial cells or artificially cross-linked with antibody. Consistent with these findings, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicates the Cys-201 interchain disulfide forms a hinge that maintains the homodimer in an "open scissors" conformation, likely allowing arrangement of the two HA binding domains for mutual engagement with ligand. Finally, we demonstrate the Cys-201 interchain disulfide is highly labile, and selective reduction with TCEP-HCl disrupts LYVE-1 homodimers, ablating HA binding. These findings reveal binding is dependent not just on clustering but also on the biochemical properties of LYVE-1 homodimers. They also mark LYVE-1 as the first Link protein superfamily member requiring covalent homodimerization for function and suggest the interchain disulfide acts as a redox switch in vivo.

Bano F, Banerji S, Howarth M, Jackson DG, Richter RP. 2016. A single molecule assay to probe monovalent and multivalent bonds between hyaluronan and its key leukocyte receptor CD44 under force. Sci Rep, 6 (1), pp. 34176. | Show Abstract | Read more

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a category of linear, anionic polysaccharides, are ubiquitous in the extracellular space, and important extrinsic regulators of cell function. Despite the recognized significance of mechanical stimuli in cellular communication, however, only few single molecule methods are currently available to study how monovalent and multivalent GAG·protein bonds respond to directed mechanical forces. Here, we have devised such a method, by combining purpose-designed surfaces that afford immobilization of GAGs and receptors at controlled nanoscale organizations with single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). We apply the method to study the interaction of the GAG polymer hyaluronan (HA) with CD44, its receptor in vascular endothelium. Individual bonds between HA and CD44 are remarkably resistant to rupture under force in comparison to their low binding affinity. Multiple bonds along a single HA chain rupture sequentially and independently under load. We also demonstrate how strong non-covalent bonds, which are versatile for controlled protein and GAG immobilization, can be effectively used as molecular anchors in SMFS. We thus establish a versatile method for analyzing the nanomechanics of GAG·protein interactions at the level of single GAG chains, which provides new molecular-level insight into the role of mechanical forces in the assembly and function of GAG-rich extracellular matrices.

Stanly TA, Fritzsche M, Banerji S, García E, Bernardino de la Serna J, Jackson DG, Eggeling C. 2016. Critical importance of appropriate fixation conditions for faithful imaging of receptor microclusters. Biol Open, 5 (9), pp. 1343-1350. | Show Abstract | Read more

Receptor clustering is known to trigger signalling events that contribute to critical changes in cellular functions. Faithful imaging of such clusters by means of fluorescence microscopy relies on the application of adequate cell fixation methods prior to immunolabelling in order to avoid artefactual redistribution by the antibodies themselves. Previous work has highlighted the inadequacy of fixation with paraformaldehyde (PFA) alone for efficient immobilisation of membrane-associated molecules, and the advantages of fixation with PFA in combination with glutaraldehyde (GA). Using fluorescence microscopy, we here highlight how inadequate fixation can lead to the formation of artefactual clustering of receptors in lymphatic endothelial cells, focussing on the transmembrane hyaluronan receptors LYVE-1 and CD44, and the homotypic adhesion molecule CD31, each of which displays their native diffuse surface distribution pattern only when visualised with the right fixation techniques, i.e. PFA/GA in combination. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) confirms that the artefactual receptor clusters are indeed introduced by residual mobility. In contrast, we observed full immobilisation of membrane proteins in cells that were fixed and then subsequently permeabilised, irrespective of whether the fixative was PFA or PFA/GA in combination. Our study underlines the importance of choosing appropriate sample preparation protocols for preserving authentic receptor organisation in advanced fluorescence microscopy.

Chen X, Bonfiglio R, Banerji S, Jackson DG, Salustri A, Richter RP. 2016. Micromechanical Analysis of the Hyaluronan-Rich Matrix Surrounding the Oocyte Reveals a Uniquely Soft and Elastic Composition. Biophys J, 110 (12), pp. 2779-2789. | Show Abstract | Read more

The cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC) matrix is an extended coat that forms around the oocyte a few hours before ovulation and plays vital roles in oocyte biology. Here, we analyzed the micromechanical response of mouse COC matrix by colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy. We found that the COC matrix is elastic insofar as it does not flow and its original shape is restored after force release. At the same time, the COC matrix is extremely soft. Specifically, the most compliant parts of in vivo and in vitro expanded COC matrices yielded Young's modulus values of 0.5 ± 0.1 Pa and 1.6 ± 0.3 Pa, respectively, suggesting both high porosity and a large mesh size (≥100 nm). In addition, the elastic modulus increased progressively with indentation. Furthermore, using optical microscopy to correlate these mechanical properties with ultrastructure, we discovered that the COC is surrounded by a thick matrix shell that is essentially devoid of cumulus cells and is enhanced upon COC expansion in vivo. We propose that the pronounced nonlinear elastic behavior of the COC matrix is a consequence of structural heterogeneity and serves important functions in biological processes such as oocyte transport in the oviduct and sperm penetration.

Lawrance W, Banerji S, Day AJ, Bhattacharjee S, Jackson DG. 2016. Binding of Hyaluronan to the Native Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Receptor LYVE-1 Is Critically Dependent on Receptor Clustering and Hyaluronan Organization. J Biol Chem, 291 (15), pp. 8014-8030. | Show Abstract | Read more

The lymphatic endothelial receptor LYVE-1 has been implicated in both uptake of hyaluronan (HA) from tissue matrix and in facilitating transit of leukocytes and tumor cells through lymphatic vessels based largely onin vitrostudies with recombinant receptor in transfected fibroblasts. Curiously, however, LYVE-1 in lymphatic endothelium displays little if any binding to HAin vitro, and this has led to the conclusion that the native receptor is functionally silenced, a feature that is difficult to reconcile with its proposedin vivofunctions. Nonetheless, as we reported recently, LYVE-1 can function as a receptor for HA-encapsulated Group A streptococci and mediate lymphatic dissemination in mice. Here we resolve these paradoxical findings and show that the capacity of LYVE-1 to bind HA is strictly dependent on avidity, demanding appropriate receptor self-association and/or HA multimerization. In particular, we demonstrate the prerequisite of a critical LYVE-1 threshold density and show that HA binding may be elicited in lymphatic endothelium by surface clustering with divalent LYVE-1 mAbs. In addition, we show that cross-linking of biotinylated HA in streptavidin multimers or supramolecular complexes with the inflammation-induced protein TSG-6 enables binding even in the absence of LYVE-1 cross-linking. Finally, we show that endogenous HA on the surface of macrophages can engage LYVE-1, facilitating their adhesion and transit across lymphatic endothelium. These results reveal LYVE-1 as a low affinity receptor tuned to discriminate between different HA configurations through avidity and establish a new mechanistic basis for the functions ascribed to LYVE-1 in matrix HA binding and leukocyte traffickingin vivo.

Royston DJ, Clasper S, Jackson DG. 2016. Immunohistochemical Methods for Measuring Tissue Lymphangiogenesis. Methods Mol Biol, 1430 pp. 35-48. | Show Abstract | Read more

The field of lymphatic research has benefited enormously from the discovery of "marker" proteins that permit not only the identification and quantitation of lymphatic vessels in tissue sections for tumor pathology but also the isolation of primary lymphatic endothelial cells for basic research. This chapter focuses on the use of these markers for the immunohistochemical analysis of lymphangiogenesis in both frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue sections and discusses current protocols including newer versions employing biotin tyramide amplification and their associated problems.

Lynskey NN, Banerji S, Johnson LA, Holder KA, Reglinski M, Wing PA, Rigby D, Jackson DG, Sriskandan S. 2015. Rapid Lymphatic Dissemination of Encapsulated Group A Streptococci via Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Receptor-1 Interaction. PLoS Pathog, 11 (9), pp. e1005137. | Show Abstract | Read more

The host lymphatic network represents an important conduit for pathogen dissemination. Indeed, the lethal human pathogen group A streptococcus has a predilection to induce pathology in the lymphatic system and draining lymph nodes, however the underlying basis and subsequent consequences for disease outcome are currently unknown. Here we report that the hyaluronan capsule of group A streptococci is a crucial virulence determinant for lymphatic tropism in vivo, and further, we identify the lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 as the critical host receptor for capsular hyaluronan in the lymphatic system. Interference with this interaction in vivo impeded bacterial dissemination to local draining lymph nodes and, in the case of a hyper-encapsulated M18 strain, redirected streptococcal entry into the blood circulation, suggesting a pivotal role in the manifestation of streptococcal infections. Our results reveal a novel function for bacterial capsular polysaccharide in directing lymphatic tropism, with potential implications for disease pathology.

Rigby DA, Ferguson DJ, Johnson LA, Jackson DG. 2015. Neutrophils rapidly transit inflamed lymphatic vessel endothelium via integrin-dependent proteolysis and lipoxin-induced junctional retraction. J Leukoc Biol, 98 (6), pp. 897-912. | Show Abstract | Read more

Neutrophils are the first leukocyte population to be recruited from the circulation following tissue injury or infection, where they play key roles in host defense. However, recent evidence indicates recruited neutrophils can also enter lymph and shape adaptive immune responses downstream in draining lymph nodes. At present, the cellular mechanisms regulating neutrophil entry to lymphatic vessels and migration to lymph nodes are largely unknown. Here, we have investigated these events in an in vivo mouse Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination model, ex vivo mouse dermal explants, and in vitro Transwell system comprising monolayers of primary human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells. We demonstrate that neutrophils are reliant on endothelial activation for adhesion, initially via E-selectin and subsequently, by integrin-mediated binding to ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, combined with CXCL8-dependent chemotaxis. Moreover, we reveal that integrin-mediated neutrophil adhesion plays a pivotal role in subsequent transmigration by focusing the action of matrix metalloproteinases and the 15-lipoxygenase-1-derived chemorepellent 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid at neutrophil:endothelial contact sites to induce transient endothelial junctional retraction and rapid, selective neutrophil trafficking. These findings reveal an unexpectedly intimate collaboration between neutrophils and the lymphatic vessel endothelium, in which these phagocytic leukocytes act as pathfinders for their own transit during inflammation.

Schmaus A, Klusmeier S, Bauer J, Thiele W, Rothley M, Quagliata L, Dimmler A, Jackson D, Sleeman J. 2015. Small hyaluronan oligosaccharides: novel regulators of lymphangiogenesis and metastasis CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL METASTASIS, 32 (3), pp. 236-237.

Pollitt AY, Poulter NS, Gitz E, Navarro-Nuñez L, Wang YJ, Hughes CE, Thomas SG, Nieswandt B, Douglas MR, Owen DM et al. 2014. Syk and Src family kinases regulate C-type lectin receptor 2 (CLEC-2)-mediated clustering of podoplanin and platelet adhesion to lymphatic endothelial cells. J Biol Chem, 289 (52), pp. 35695-35710. | Show Abstract | Read more

The interaction of C-type lectin receptor 2 (CLEC-2) on platelets with Podoplanin on lymphatic endothelial cells initiates platelet signaling events that are necessary for prevention of blood-lymph mixing during development. In the present study, we show that CLEC-2 signaling via Src family and Syk tyrosine kinases promotes platelet adhesion to primary mouse lymphatic endothelial cells at low shear. Using supported lipid bilayers containing mobile Podoplanin, we further show that activation of Src and Syk in platelets promotes clustering of CLEC-2 and Podoplanin. Clusters of CLEC-2-bound Podoplanin migrate rapidly to the center of the platelet to form a single structure. Fluorescence lifetime imaging demonstrates that molecules within these clusters are within 10 nm of one another and that the clusters are disrupted by inhibition of Src and Syk family kinases. CLEC-2 clusters are also seen in platelets adhered to immobilized Podoplanin using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. These findings provide mechanistic insight by which CLEC-2 signaling promotes adhesion to Podoplanin and regulation of Podoplanin signaling, thereby contributing to lymphatic vasculature development.

Xue L, Fergusson J, Salimi M, Panse I, Ussher JE, Hegazy AN, Vinall SL, Jackson DG, Hunter MG, Pettipher R et al. 2015. Prostaglandin D2 and leukotriene E4 synergize to stimulate diverse TH2 functions and TH2 cell/neutrophil crosstalk. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 135 (5), pp. 1358-66.e1-11. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are lipid mediators derived from mast cells, which activate TH2 cells. The combination of PGD2 and cysLTs (notably cysteinyl leukotriene E4 [LTE4]) enhances TH2 cytokine production. However, the synergistic interaction of cysLTs with PGD2 in promoting TH2 cell activation is still poorly understood. The receptors for these mediators are drug targets in the treatment of allergic diseases, and hence understanding their interaction is likely to have clinical implications. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to comprehensively define the roles of PGD2, LTE4, and their combination in activating human TH2 cells and how such activation might allow the TH2 cells to engage downstream effectors, such as neutrophils, which contribute to the pathology of allergic responses. METHODS: The effects of PGD2, LTE4, and their combination on human TH2 cell gene expression were defined by using a microarray, and changes in specific inflammatory pathways were confirmed by means of PCR array, quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, Luminex, flow cytometry, and functional assays, including analysis of downstream neutrophil activation. Blockade of PGD2 and LTE4 was tested by using TM30089, an antagonist of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells, and montelukast, an antagonist of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1. RESULTS: PGD2 and LTE4 altered the transcription of a wide range of genes and induced diverse functional responses in TH2 cells, including cell adhesion, migration, and survival and cytokine production. The combination of these lipids synergistically or additively enhanced TH2 responses and, strikingly, induced marked production of diverse nonclassical TH2 inflammatory mediators, including IL-22, IL-8, and GM-CSF, at concentrations sufficient to affect neutrophil activation. CONCLUSIONS: PGD2 and LTE4 activate TH2 cells through different pathways but act synergistically to promote multiple downstream effector functions, including neutrophil migration and survival. Combined inhibition of both PGD2 and LTE4 pathways might provide an effective therapeutic strategy for allergic responses, particularly those involving interaction between TH2 cells and neutrophils, such as in patients with severe asthma.

Jackson DG. 2014. Lymphatic Regulation of Cellular Trafficking. J Clin Cell Immunol, 5 (05), | Show Abstract | Read more

Lymphatic vessels play vital roles in immune surveillance and immune regulation by conveying antigen loaded dendritic cells, memory T cells, macrophages and neutrophils from the peripheral tissues to draining lymph nodes where they initiate as well as modify immune responses. Until relatively recently however, there was little understanding of how entry and migration through lymphatic vessels is organized or the specific molecular mechanisms that might be involved. Within the last decade, the situation has been transformed by an explosion of knowledge generated largely through the application of microscopic imaging, transgenic animals, specific markers and function blocking mAbs that is beginning to provide a rational conceptual framework. This article provides a critical review of the recent literature, highlighting seminal discoveries that have revealed the fascinating ultrastructure of leucocyte entry sites in lymphatic vessels, as well as generating controversies over the involvement of integrin adhesion, chemotactic and haptotactic mechanisms in DC entry under normal and inflamed conditions. It also discusses the major changes in lymphatic architecture that occur during inflammation and the different modes of leucocyte entry and trafficking within inflamed lymphatic vessels, as well as presenting a timely update on the likely role of hyaluronan and the major lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 in leucocyte transit.

Exploring the role of LYVE-1 macrophages in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune mediated inflammatory disease primarily affecting synovial joints, that is characterized by inflammation and thickening of the synovial membrane, resulting in progressive erosion and loss of the underlying cartilage and bone. Within the affected joints an invasive mass of proliferating tissue termed the pannus, comprised of macrophages, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, blood and lymphatic vessels creates a tumour-like state, releasing a soup of cytokines and ...

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Mechanisms underlying the trafficking of dendritic cells from tissues to draining lymph nodes via the lymphatic receptor LYVE-1

Fundamental to generating a host immune response to infection is the mobilisation of antigen loaded dendritic cells (DCs) in affected tissues and their migration via afferent lymph to draining nodes where they prime and activate T cells (reviewed in Jackson 2009, "Lymphatic regulation of cell trafficking" http://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/lymphatic-regulation-of-cellular-trafficking-2155-9899-5-258.php?aid=31116) 10.4172/2161-0681.1000241 ). The trafficking of DCs and other leucocyte ...

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